Limba Engleza Contemporana
Modals add to the lexical verb a special semantic component such as ability, obligation, permission, possibility. From a syntactic point of view, modal verbs have certain properties that make them similar to auxiliary verbs. These properties are known in the literature as NICE properties. NICE is an acronym (negation, interrogation, coordination, emphasis).1. The negator NOT is attached to the modal verb to form a negative sentence.2. Modal verbs are inverted with the subject in yes or no, wh-, and tag-questions just like auxiliary verbs.
3. The modal verb can be used in coordinate clauses beginning with AND SO followed by inversion to avoid repetition.
4. Modal verbs can be used for emphatic purposes in affirmative sentences.Both auxiliaries and modals appear in the same type of constructions and have the so called NICE properties.
Modal verbs cannot appear in certain constructions. They are incompatible with non-finite forms (present/past participle, infinitive). Modal verbs are incompatible with agreement; they are always followed by a short infinitive. They have no passive form and no imperative. Modal verbs cannot co-occur with the exception of certain dialects in southern USA, where two modals in the same sentence are acceptable. Some modals have two tense forms (present and past: can-could, may-might).
Modal verbs are a distinct class of verbs that share syntactic properties with auxiliary verbs (NICE properties) and which have a certain semantic value like the lexical verbs.
We distinguish 2 main kinds of meanings for modal auxiliaries:
a. INTRINSIC: permission, obligation, volition
b. EXTRINSIC: possibility, necessity, prediction
CAN/COULD: possibility, ability, permission
MAY/MIGHT: possibility, permission
MUST: necessity, obligation
NEED, HAVE TO: necessity, obligation
OUGHT TO, SHOULD: tentative inference, obligation
WILL/WOULD: prediction, volition
SHALL: prediction, volition
4. Types of predication
A copulative predicate consists of a linking verb and a predicative which may be adjectival or nominal. The adjectival predicative may be realized by an AP. The nominal predicative may be expressed by a NP, PP or a clause.
The role of the link verb BE as part of the copulative predicate:
a. it connects the subject NP to the NP/AP functioning as predicative
b. it enters into a relationship of agreement in person and number with the subject of the sentence.
c. it provides information concerning tense and aspect.
There are 2 classes of link verbs:
a. semantically empty link verbs: BE
b. semantically poor verbs: BECOME, APPEAR, GROW, REMAIN, GO, STAND, FALL, FEEL, GET, RUN, SMELL, TASTE.Some of these semantically poor verbs can also be used as transitive or intransitive verbs.
The predicative is referentially dependent on the subject of the sentence to which it gives an attribute or an identity. The main property of the identifying predicative is that it is reversible that is it can change positions with the subject.
A. The adjectival predicative
Adjectives that are used predicatively may be non-derived or derived. Some predicative adjectives are derived from transitive verbs by means of suffixation. The DO of the transitive verb becomes a PO in the copulative predication.There is a special group of predicative adjectives which indicate state/condition and which are prefixed by 'a-': alike, averse, afraid, akin. These predicative adjectives may take clausal complement.
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