Limba Engleza Contemporana

Trimis la data: 2010-05-29 Materia: Engleza Nivel: Facultate Pagini: 21 Nota: / 10 Downloads: 16
Autor: Andrei Iliescu Dimensiune: 31kb Voturi: Tipul fisierelor: doc Acorda si tu o nota acestui curs: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
vezi mai multe detalii vezi mai putine detalii
Raporteaza o eroare
Syntactic properties of modal verbs
Modals add to the lexical verb a special semantic component such as ability, obligation, permission, possibility. From a syntactic point of view, modal verbs have certain properties that make them similar to auxiliary verbs. These properties are known in the literature as NICE properties. NICE is an acronym (negation, interrogation, coordination, emphasis).1. The negator NOT is attached to the modal verb to form a negative sentence.2. Modal verbs are inverted with the subject in yes or no, wh-, and tag-questions just like auxiliary verbs.
Referate similare: Nu exista cursuri similare

3. The modal verb can be used in coordinate clauses beginning with AND SO followed by inversion to avoid repetition.
4. Modal verbs can be used for emphatic purposes in affirmative sentences.Both auxiliaries and modals appear in the same type of constructions and have the so called NICE properties.

Modal verbs cannot appear in certain constructions. They are incompatible with non-finite forms (present/past participle, infinitive). Modal verbs are incompatible with agreement; they are always followed by a short infinitive. They have no passive form and no imperative. Modal verbs cannot co-occur with the exception of certain dialects in southern USA, where two modals in the same sentence are acceptable. Some modals have two tense forms (present and past: can-could, may-might).

Modal verbs are a distinct class of verbs that share syntactic properties with auxiliary verbs (NICE properties) and which have a certain semantic value like the lexical verbs.
Semantic properties

We distinguish 2 main kinds of meanings for modal auxiliaries:
a. INTRINSIC: permission, obligation, volition
b. EXTRINSIC: possibility, necessity, prediction
CAN/COULD: possibility, ability, permission
MAY/MIGHT: possibility, permission
MUST: necessity, obligation
NEED, HAVE TO: necessity, obligation
OUGHT TO, SHOULD: tentative inference, obligation
WILL/WOULD: prediction, volition
SHALL: prediction, volition

4. Types of predication
Copulative predication
A copulative predicate consists of a linking verb and a predicative which may be adjectival or nominal. The adjectival predicative may be realized by an AP. The nominal predicative may be expressed by a NP, PP or a clause.

The role of the link verb BE as part of the copulative predicate:
a. it connects the subject NP to the NP/AP functioning as predicative
b. it enters into a relationship of agreement in person and number with the subject of the sentence.
c. it provides information concerning tense and aspect.

There are 2 classes of link verbs:
a. semantically empty link verbs: BE
b. semantically poor verbs: BECOME, APPEAR, GROW, REMAIN, GO, STAND, FALL, FEEL, GET, RUN, SMELL, TASTE.Some of these semantically poor verbs can also be used as transitive or intransitive verbs.

The predicative is referentially dependent on the subject of the sentence to which it gives an attribute or an identity. The main property of the identifying predicative is that it is reversible that is it can change positions with the subject.

A. The adjectival predicative
Adjectives that are used predicatively may be non-derived or derived. Some predicative adjectives are derived from transitive verbs by means of suffixation. The DO of the transitive verb becomes a PO in the copulative predication.There is a special group of predicative adjectives which indicate state/condition and which are prefixed by 'a-': alike, averse, afraid, akin. These predicative adjectives may take clausal complement.

Nota explicativa
Referatele si lucrarile oferite de Referate.ro au scop educativ si orientativ pentru cercetare academica.

Iti recomandam ca referatele pe care le downloadezi de pe site sa le utilizezi doar ca sursa de inspiratie sau ca resurse educationale pentru conceperea unui referat nou, propriu si original.

Referat.ro te invata cum sa faci o lucrare de nota 10!
Linkuri utile
Programeaza-te online la salonul favorit Descarca gratuit aplicatiile pentru iOS si Android Filmulete haioase Filme, poante si cele mai tari faze Jocuri Cele mai tari jocuri de pe net Referate scoala Resurse, lucrari, referate materiale pentru lucrari de nota 10
Toate imaginile, textele sau alte materiale prezentate pe site sunt proprietatea referat.ro fiind interzisa reproducerea integrala sau partiala a continutului acestui site pe alte siteuri sau in orice alta forma fara acordul scris al referat.ro. Va rugam sa consultati Termenii si conditiile de utilizare a site-ului. Informati-va despre Politica de confidentialitate. Daca aveti intrebari sau sugestii care pot ajuta la dezvoltarea site-ului va rugam sa ne scrieti la adresa webmaster@referat.ro.
Confidentialitatea ta este importanta pentru noi

Referat.ro utilizeaza fisiere de tip cookie pentru a personaliza si imbunatati experienta ta pe Website-ul nostru. Te informam ca ne-am actualizat politica de confidentialitate pentru a integra cele mai recente modificari privind protectia persoanelor fizice in ceea ce priveste prelucrarea datelor cu caracter personal. Inainte de a continua navigarea pe Website-ul nostru te rugam sa aloci timpul necesar pentru a citi si intelege continutul Politicii de Cookie. Prin continuarea navigarii pe Website-ul nostru confirmi acceptarea utilizarii fisierelor de tip cookie conform Politicii de Cookie. Nu uita totusi ca poti modifica in orice moment setarile acestor fisiere cookie urmarind instructiunile din Politica de Cookie.


Politica de Cookie
Am inteles