the future, speech communication has been and will be the dominant mode of human social
bonding and information exchange. The spoken word is now extended, through technological
mediation such as telephony, movies, radio, television, and the Internet. This trend reflects
the primacy of spoken communication in human psychology.
There are generally two categories of users who can benefit from adoption of speech as a control modality in parallel with others, such as the mouse, keyboard, touch-screen, and joystick.
For novice users, functions that are conceptually simple should be directly accessible. For example, raising the voice output volume under software control on the desktop speakers, a conceptually simple operation, in some GUI systems of today requires opening one or
more windows or menus, and manipulating sliders, check-boxes or other graphical elements.
This requires some knowledge of the system's interface conventions and structures. For the novice user, to be able to say raise the volume would be more direct and natural. For expert users, the GUI paradigm is sometimes perceived as an obstacle or nuisance and shortcuts are
sought. Frequently these shortcuts allow the power user's hands to remain on the keyboard or mouse while mixing content creation with system commands. For example, an operator of a graphic design system for CAD/CAM might wish to specify a text formatting command
while keeping the pointer device in position over a selected screen element.
Speech has the potential to accomplish these functions more powerfully than keyboard and mouse clicks. Speech becomes more powerful when supplemented by information streams encoding other dynamic aspects of user and system status, which can be resolved by the semantic component of a complete multi-modal interface. We expect such multimodal
interactions to proceed based on more complete user modeling, including speech, visual orientation, natural and device-based gestures, and facial expression, and these will be coordinated with detailed system profiles of typical user tasks and activity patterns.
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