Tense in English
-Tense is fundamentally a category as the chronology of events is always established in function of the moment "now" of speaking ego (i.e. events, are present, post or future).
-Beside tense inflections marked on the verb, temporal adverbs as well contribute to the temporal specification of sentences.
The notion of axis or orientation.
-The speaker is able to place a perceived event in time because he sets it in relation with another event with respect to which the perceived event occurs either before, after or is simultaneous with the other event.
-The present moment is a fleeting moment and as soon as it has been established it incuitably undergoes the change into a past moment: it becomes a past moment of time with respect to which other events are simultaneous with, occu before it or after it.
- A past moment in time is another source event and it creates the past exis of orientation.
-A future event in time can become a source event and other events can be simultaneous with this future event, can occur before it or after it. In this case, the future event creates the future exis of orientation.
- The moment of speech of the speaking ego serves as source event in grammar. It locates the speaker in time and other events are in grammar. It locates the speaker in time and other events are present, past or future relative to the moment "now" of the speaker. The present moment "now" , which is the moment of initiating a discourse creates the present axis of orientation.
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