American vs. British English

Trimis la data: 2004-05-27 Materia: Engleza Nivel: Liceu Pagini: 6 Nota: / 10 Downloads: 2914
Autor: Camelia Mihai Dimensiune: 12kb Voturi: Tipul fisierelor: doc Acorda si tu o nota acestui referat: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
vezi mai multe detalii vezi mai putine detalii
Raporteaza o eroare
American English acquired international significance after World War II, when the United States assumed a more global role and political, economic and technological developments promoted American influence worldwide. American English currently asserts a dominant influence on "world English" (cf. British English) largely due to the following:

Mureşan Camelia Vasilica
LRE I / 1


American vs. British EnglishBasic Differences and Influences of Change

Introduction

American English acquired international significance after World War II, when the United States assumed a more global role and political, economic and technological developments promoted American influence worldwide. American English currently asserts a dominant influence on "world English" (cf. British English) largely due to the following:
Population: U.S. vs. U.K. (SAE/SBE ca 70% vs. 17% of all native English;
Wealth of the U.S. vs. the U.K. economy, & influences
Magnitude of higher education in America vs. the U.K.
Magnitude of the publishing industry in America
Magnitude of mass media and media technology influence on a worldwide scale
Appeal of American popular culture on language & habits
International political and economic position of the U.S.
American and British English are both "variants" of the English Language, more similar than different, especially with "educated" or "scientific" English. Most divergence is due to differences in national history and national cultural development, varying regional and local idioms and colloquialisms, and media/advertising influences.
The following general categories of difference between standard American English (SAE) and standard British English (SBE) each have their own sociolectic value:

I. Different Pronunciation, although same spelling
Advertisement (advert, ad)
Controversy, Laboratory, Secretary
Leisure, schedule, dance, dynasty
Renaissance, oregano, clerk [bank, office], ate
'PC'-influence examples: harass, harassment, Uranus, etc.
II. Different Spelling, although same pronunciation
Colour — color, Centre — center
Cheque — check (noun form [bank]; verb "to check" the same)
Defence — defense (noun form), Licence (noun form) — license
Alright — all right; Manoeuvre — maneuver; tyre — tire
Ageing — aging; Whisky — whiskey (U.S. & Ireland)
Gaol — jail
III. Same Term, different but similar spelling and pronunciation
Aluminium — aluminum
Polythene — polyethylene
Maths — math (shortening of "mathematics")
Rise — raise (more money in salary, wages)
IV. Same Words, Different or Additional Meanings in One Variety
Pavement (GB) = Sidewalk (US); Pavement (US) = Road (GB)
I married a homely girl. The opening of our new play was a bomb!
Nigel and Trevor purchased 7-day Travelcard season tickets.
Evelyn took a coin out of [his/her] purse (GB=male, coin purse; US=female, handbag)
The committee tabled the motion (put it on the table).
We all had tea and biscuits. (cf Harry Potter, 'crumpets' vs 'English muffins')
The corn harvest was exceptional this year. (cf. "maize", "sweetcorn")
We needed a torch for the dark trail. (cf. flashlight, electric torch, flaming torch)
IBM made over a billion dollars last year. (cf "thousand million"; changing GB standards)
Trousers (GB) = Pants (US); Pants (US) = underwear (GB)
Jumper (GB) = Sweater (US); Jumper (US) = pinafore [dress] (GB)
Shorts (US) = underwear (GB); Vest (US) = underwear (GB)
Pekka was climbing in the lime tree (lehmus, cf linden, basswood, common lime)



V. Grammar, Syntax, Punctuation, General Usage
Punctuation
Business letter salutations, colons vs commas
Date writing, number/word order (Never use only numbers!)
Use of commas and periods inside quotation marks
Capitalization of titles of articles, essays
Grammar
(U.S.) Finnair has a flight to London today.(G.B.) Finnair has/have a flight to London today. (large collective nouns)
(U.S.) England has (...) played well today, even if it lost.(G.B.) England have played well today, even if they lost.
(G.B.) The Government are acting like themselves again.
(G.B.) Have you got your grade in history yet?(U.S.) Have you gotten your grade in history yet?
(G.B.) He went on a course. How many were on the course?(U.S.) He was in a course. How many were in the course?
(G.B.) We lived in the High Street. (cf 'street people ...)(U.S.) We lived on Main Street ("on" plus article plus High/Main)
(G.B.) He's in hospital with a broken leg.(U.S.) He's in the hospital with a broken leg.
(G.B.) I have got a car. vs. (U.S.) I have a car. I got a car. (different implications)
(G.B.) We weren't able to catch him up;(U.S.) We weren't able to catch him, catch up with him, catch up [with him].
One was different from/than the other.
VI. Divergence and Overlap
To post vs to mail a letter — an art gallery vs an art museum
Autumn vs fall — tap vs faucet, Luggage vs baggage, shop vs store, etc.
VII. Same Concept, Different Terms or Expressions; (or)Same Word, Differences in Style, Connotation and Frequency
Hire a car — rent a car (hire-purchase vs installment plan)
Petrol — gasoline; Saloon — sedan, Estate car — station wagon
Boot — trunk (storage area); silencer — muffler (to reduce exhaust noise)
Bonnet — hood; Dynamo — generator; Gear lever — shift
Sweet — dessert; Red whortleberries — lingonberries
Fortnight — two weeks; Goods train — freight train
Barrister, Solicitor — lawyer, attorney-at-law
VIII. "Inventiveness"; Spinoffs; Combinations; Brand Names
Hamburger — cheeseburger, beefburger, fishburger, lobsterburger ..
Hotel, Motel, floatel, boatel
Hardware, software, firmware, shareware, freeware, vaporware, treeware ..
Suburb, exurb, cyburb, technoburb; citizen, netizen
Smog, Litterbug, 'pleather' (fabric), cosmeceuticals, pharming, 'transgenetic' (cf GM) foods
Sexploitation, cityscape, zeroscaping (xeric plants)
a "spin doctor" (political aide), "what was the spin on that story?"
"Half and half"; "A six-pack of PBR tallboys..." (cf. "short dogs")
"Let's go and visit the Colonel ...."
(Roz, on Frasier): "I'm going to climb into a hot tub with my good friends Ben and Jerry"
IX. Euphemistic References
Senior citizen, emeritus professor
Sanitary engineer, environmental technician (janitor)
Security officer, hair stylist, household manager
Powder room, ladies' lounge; motion discomfort bag
Pre-owned car, "Culturally-deprived area"
"The loved one..." (cf death and funeral jargon generally)
"Air support missions", "ordnance delivery", "pacify an area" (cf military generally)
"To deselect, dehire" employees; to "downsize, right-size" the company
an "involuntary conversion" of our 727 equipment (plane crash)
X. "Equality" Vocabulary
Fireman — firefighter, Policeman — police officer
Mailman — mail carrier, Salesman — sales person
Manmade — artificial, synthetic, manufactured
Maid — house cleaner. Stewardess — flight attendant
Chairman — chairperson, Chair, presiding officer
XI. "Politically Correct" Terminology
Elderly or "old" people vs senior citizens; seniors; "older" adults, adults 55 & older
Differently-abled or physically-challenged (vs "handicapped")
Animal companion vs "pet", Native American vs "Indian"
People of Color vs "blacks" (or any non-whites); Canola vs "rapeseed"
International Wildlife Conservation Park (former Bronx Zoo - "zoo" connotations)
XII. "Black English" (specific terminology in cultural context)
Everybody look down at they feet; I ain't afraid of nuthin'
You ugly, man; I the baddest cat around; He be good.
Boy, Nigger, Soul food, Honkie, rapping, gig, cool!
XIII. Yiddish Influence
Schlock, Goy, Schlemiel, schlep, chutzpa, nebbish, shtik
He should live so long! I should have such luck!
He's complaining yet! This I need? All right already.
Fat-shmat, so long as she's happy. Smart, he's not...
XIV. Other Ethnic Influences Abound...
"Gay" liberation movement (drag, closet, fairy, fruitcake, 'to out' - 'he was outed')
Organized crime, crime syndicate (vs "Mafia")
"Chicano" (vs 'hispanic') culture vs "wetbacks," etc...
XV. Jargon; "Professional" influences, Media conveyance...
Computer: ASCII text, fonts, justified margins, a windowed environment, mouse-compatible, on-line access, upload/download, e-mail "flaming..."
Drugs: Cocaine (coke, leaf, snow, angel dust); crack, valise, kilos, brick, 'trips'
Social Position: Yuppie, Buppie, Puppie, Dinks, Woofs ...
Business: Power breakfast, Valium picnic, warm fuzzies,
Youthisms: dork, nerd, geek, dweeb; psyched, pumped, barf...
Technology and Media in Culture: technocrat, technopeasant, techno-potato, tech-nomads; digerati, virtual corporation, telecommuting, edutainment, 'terrestrial' TV (vs satellite); [broadcasting to] 'narrowcasting', [human] 'multitasking'
XVI. Regional and Class Terminological Stereotyping
The South vs California
"bourbon and branch," "blues, banjos, Billy Bob, Bubba & baptists" "good ole' boys," "ice tea, grits & red-eye; pecan pie"
"Awesome," "mondo," "tubular" (Rhonda, Kim, Tracy, & Kelli [Valley Girls])
Terms for general, unknown, 'anonymous' or 'stereotypical' ...

Nota explicativa
Referatele si lucrarile oferite de Referate.ro au scop educativ si orientativ pentru cercetare academica.

Iti recomandam ca referatele pe care le downloadezi de pe site sa le utilizezi doar ca sursa de inspiratie sau ca resurse educationale pentru conceperea unui referat nou, propriu si original.

Referat.ro te invata cum sa faci o lucrare de nota 10!
Filmele zilei
Linkuri utile
Programeaza-te online la salonul favorit Descarca gratuit aplicatiile pentru iOS si Android Filmulete haioase Filme, poante si cele mai tari faze Jocuri Cele mai tari jocuri de pe net Referate scoala Resurse, lucrari, referate materiale pentru lucrari de nota 10 Bacalaureat 2019 Vezi subiectele examenului de Bacalaureat din 2019 Evaluare Nationala 2019 Ultimele informatii despre evaluare nationala
Toate imaginile, textele sau alte materiale prezentate pe site sunt proprietatea referat.ro fiind interzisa reproducerea integrala sau partiala a continutului acestui site pe alte siteuri sau in orice alta forma fara acordul scris al referat.ro. Va rugam sa consultati Termenii si conditiile de utilizare a site-ului. Informati-va despre Politica de confidentialitate. Daca aveti intrebari sau sugestii care pot ajuta la dezvoltarea site-ului va rugam sa ne scrieti la adresa webmaster@referat.ro.
Confidentialitatea ta este importanta pentru noi

Referat.ro utilizeaza fisiere de tip cookie pentru a personaliza si imbunatati experienta ta pe Website-ul nostru. Te informam ca ne-am actualizat politica de confidentialitate pentru a integra cele mai recente modificari privind protectia persoanelor fizice in ceea ce priveste prelucrarea datelor cu caracter personal. Inainte de a continua navigarea pe Website-ul nostru te rugam sa aloci timpul necesar pentru a citi si intelege continutul Politicii de Cookie. Prin continuarea navigarii pe Website-ul nostru confirmi acceptarea utilizarii fisierelor de tip cookie conform Politicii de Cookie. Nu uita totusi ca poti modifica in orice moment setarile acestor fisiere cookie urmarind instructiunile din Politica de Cookie.


Politica de Cookie
Am inteles