Autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition

Trimis la data: 2015-07-12 Materia: Biologie Nivel: Liceu Pagini: 10 Nota: / 10 Downloads: 0
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Exist 4 kinds of nutrition and depends on organism. Autotrophic and heterotrophic is characteristic only for plants and animals. Humans, like all animals eat food which has be made by other organisms. The food we eat contains organic substances, especially carbohydrates, fats and proteins which have been made by plants. Plants are able to make these substances from inorganic ones; they use carbon dioxide and water to make carbohydrates by photosynthesis.

The addition of a few inorganic minerals ion, such as nitrates and phosphates, enables them to synthesize all the other substance which they require ,such as proteins and nucleic acids.
All animals on organic substances which have originally been made by plants, both for their source of energy and for materials from which to build their bodies. Animals are therefore said to be heterotrophic ,while plants are autotrophic .Hetero means 'different' or 'other', whereas means 'auto' or 'self'.

Animals are depend on food produced by other organism, but plants can make our own food.
Animals are not only group of organism which feed heterotrophically. Fungi also are hetrotrophs, as are many protoctist and prokaryotes. All of them are dependent on food made by autotrophs.
Types of heterotrophic nutrition:
Heterotrophic organisms have evolved many different ways of obtaining the organic nutrients they need.
Holozoic nutrirtion

Is the method by which humans and other mammals feed, as well as many other animals such as insects .food, in solid or liquid form is taken into a tube called the alimentary canal where it is digested and absorded into the body.
Saprotrophic nutrition
Is the method by which fungi and many prokaryotes feed. They live and grow on their substance , which can be anything organic, such as milk bread or dead body .

They secrete enzymes from their bodies, and digest the food material around them before absorbing it.
Parasitic nutrition
Is the method of feeding which has evolved in many different groups of organisms, including various kinds of worms and fungi and a few plants. Parasites fed on, and live in close association with, a living organism of a different species, called their host. They can feed either holozoically biting their host or sucking fluids from it, or they can feed saprotrophically ,absorbing soluble food into their bodies.

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