England (Latin Anglia), political division of the island of Great Britain, the principal division of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. England occupies all of the island east of Wales and south of Scotland, other divisions of the island of Great Britain.
Established as an independent monarchy many centuries ago, England in time achieved political control over the rest of the island, all the British Isles, and vast sections of the world, becoming the nucleus of one of the greatest empires in history. The capital, largest city, and chief port of England is London, with a population in 1996 of 7 million. It is also the capital of the United Kingdom and the site of the headquarters of the Commonwealth of Nations.
The most important buildings in England are: Tower Bridge, The Tower of London, Oxford University, Big Ben, Buckingham House.Tower Bridge is one of the world’s most famous bridges. 150,000 vehicles cross it every day. Over 900 times a year the roadway parts and lifts to let tall ships, cruise liners and other large craft pass through.
Tower Bridge Experience welcomes you inside the Gothic towers to discover the fascinating history of the bridge. You can visit the original engine rooms. And from the high-level walkways you can look out across the modern city skyline and downriver to Canary Wharf.The visit takes about an hour. The memories will last for very much longer.
The Tower of London, located on the northern bank of the Thames River, was built about 1078. It was used alternately as a fortress, royal residence, and state prison in its early years. Today, it is maintained as an arsenal with a garrison, and is open to the public. The well-preserved Norman and medieval structures cover nearly 7.2 hectares (18 acres).
Oxford is a unique and historic institution. As the oldest English-speaking university in the world, it lays claim to eight centuries of continuous existence. There is no clear date of foundation, but teaching existed at Oxford in some form in 1096 and developed rapidly from 1167, when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris.
England’s oldest institution of higher learning, Oxford University, is a federation of 35 colleges, each with its own structure and activities. Many prominent people have attended the All Souls College
Named after Sir Benjamin Hall, London’s portly commissioner of works, Big Ben is the great bell in the clock tower on the eastern end of the Houses of Parliament in London. The booming 13.5-ton bell first rang out in 1859.
Buckingham House was built for the Duke of Buckingham in 1703. George III purchased the house in 1762 and used it as one of the royal family's London homes. George IV employed John Nash to build a new palace round the old house.
Nash designed the building with Marble Arch as the main entrance. Marble Arch was later moved to Hyde Park. It was not until 1837 that Queen Victoria made Buckingham Palace the royal family's principal London residence.
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