Trimis la data: 2003-01-25 Materia: Engleza Nivel: Liceu Pagini: 4 Nota: / 10 Downloads: 1575
Autor: Liana Corneanu Dimensiune: 6kb Voturi: Tipul fisierelor: doc Acorda si tu o nota acestui referat: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
vezi mai multe detalii vezi mai putine detalii
Raporteaza o eroare
Henry VIII , Tudor king of England ( 1509-1547 ), and founder of the Church of England . The son of Henry VII , he profoundly influenced the character of the English monarchy . Henry was born in London on June 28 , 1491 , and on the death of his father in 1509 succeeded to the throne ( his elder brother Arthur having died in 1502 ) . He then married his brothers widow , Catherine of Aragon , having been betrother to her through a papal dispensation secured in 1503 . This was the first of Henry's six marriages , all of which were affected by the political and religious conditions of the time and by the monarch’s increasingly despotic behaviour .

At the beginning of his reign Henry’s good looks and hearty personality his fondness for sport and the hunt , and his military prowess endeared him to his subjects . A monarch of the Renaissance , he entertained numerous scholars and artists , including the German painter Hans Holbein the Younger who painted several portraits of the king and members of his court .

A Question of Divorce
In 1511 Henry joined in the Holy League against France and in 1513 he led the English forces through a victorious campaign in northern France . Meanwhile France’s ally James IV of Scotland , Henry’s brother-in-law , led an invasion of northern England that was crushed in September 1513 at Flodden Field by Henry’s commander Thomas Howard , 2nd Duke of Norfolk with the death of the king and many Scottish nobles . Deserted by his allies , Henry arranged a marriage in 1514 between his sister Mary and Louis XII of France , with whom he formed an alliance .

Louis’s successor , Francis I , met Henry at a magnificently stages meeting on the Field of Cloth of Gold in 1520 but no significant political decisions resulted . In 1521 Henry arranged the death of his counsellor Edward Stafford , 3th Duke of Buckingham , one of the few nobles with a potential claim to the throne . In 1525 riots broke out in England in protest against an attempt by Henry to levy taxes for military purposes and he withdrew from major military activity in Europe.

In 1527 Henry announced his desire to divorce his wife , on the grounds that the papal dispensation making the marriage possible was invalid . The chief reason for the divorce was that Catherine had failed to produce a male heir . Her only surviving child was Mary later Mary I of England . In addition , Henry was in love Anne Boleyn , a young and beautiful lady-in-waiting of the queen . Several obstacles however stood in the way of the divorce . Holy Roman Emperor Charles V , Catherine’s nephew , strongly opposed the divorce , and Pope Clement VII , whom Charles had made a prisoner could not invalidate the marriage without displeasing his captor .

In 1528 the pope was persuaded to appoint Henry’s chief minister , the English cardinal and statesman Thomas Wolsey , and Lorenzo Camppegio , a papal legate , to try the case in an English legatine court . In 1529 the pope summoned the case to Rome . When the prospect of securing a papal annulment seemed hopeless , Henry dismissed Wolsey , who died soon after in disgrace , and appointed the humanist scholar and statesman Sir Thomas More as Lord Chancellor . The latter , however , was reluctant to support the divorce.

The Break with the Papacy
Henry now preceeded to dissolve one by one the ties to the papacy . With the aid of parliamentary legislation , he first secured control of the clergy , compelling that group in 1532 to acknowledge him as head of the English Church . In the following year Henry secretly married Anne Boleyn , who was crowned Queen after Henry’s obedient Archbishop of Canterbury , Thomas Cranmer , declared the marriage with Catherine void and that with Anne valid . An act of succession affirmed the declaration of the archbishop and established Anne’s progeny as heirs to the throne . Henry’s new chief minister Thomas Cromwell , a former follower of Wolsey , began a reform of the English Church but also of governmental machinery : introducing important centralizing and organizational changes dubbed by some “the Tudor revolution in government” .

Although Hehry was immediately excommunicated , he repudiated papal jurisdiction in 1534 and made himself the supreme ecclesiastical authority inEngland with the aid of compliant bishops such as Stephen Gardiner . The English people were required to affirm under oath Henry’s supremacy and the act of succession . However , early hopes by Protestant radicals such as William Tyndale to introduce the Reformation into England were broadly thwarted : apart from the issue of papal supremacy Henry remained conservative in matters of doctrine . Nonetheless , an English translation of the Bible by Miles Coverdale was officially published in 1535 .

Nota explicativa
Referatele si lucrarile oferite de Referate.ro au scop educativ si orientativ pentru cercetare academica.

Iti recomandam ca referatele pe care le downloadezi de pe site sa le utilizezi doar ca sursa de inspiratie sau ca resurse educationale pentru conceperea unui referat nou, propriu si original.

Referat.ro te invata cum sa faci o lucrare de nota 10!
Filmele zilei
Linkuri utile
Programeaza-te online la salonul favorit Descarca gratuit aplicatiile pentru iOS si Android Filmulete haioase Filme, poante si cele mai tari faze Jocuri Cele mai tari jocuri de pe net Referate scoala Resurse, lucrari, referate materiale pentru lucrari de nota 10 Bacalaureat 2019 Vezi subiectele examenului de Bacalaureat din 2019 Evaluare Nationala 2019 Ultimele informatii despre evaluare nationala
Toate imaginile, textele sau alte materiale prezentate pe site sunt proprietatea referat.ro fiind interzisa reproducerea integrala sau partiala a continutului acestui site pe alte siteuri sau in orice alta forma fara acordul scris al referat.ro. Va rugam sa consultati Termenii si conditiile de utilizare a site-ului. Informati-va despre Politica de confidentialitate. Daca aveti intrebari sau sugestii care pot ajuta la dezvoltarea site-ului va rugam sa ne scrieti la adresa webmaster@referat.ro.
Confidentialitatea ta este importanta pentru noi

Referat.ro utilizeaza fisiere de tip cookie pentru a personaliza si imbunatati experienta ta pe Website-ul nostru. Te informam ca ne-am actualizat politica de confidentialitate pentru a integra cele mai recente modificari privind protectia persoanelor fizice in ceea ce priveste prelucrarea datelor cu caracter personal. Inainte de a continua navigarea pe Website-ul nostru te rugam sa aloci timpul necesar pentru a citi si intelege continutul Politicii de Cookie. Prin continuarea navigarii pe Website-ul nostru confirmi acceptarea utilizarii fisierelor de tip cookie conform Politicii de Cookie. Nu uita totusi ca poti modifica in orice moment setarile acestor fisiere cookie urmarind instructiunile din Politica de Cookie.

Politica de Cookie
Am inteles