THE PYRAMIDS

Trimis la data: 2003-01-25 Materia: Engleza Nivel: Liceu Pagini: 4 Nota: / 10 Downloads: 20
Autor: Liana Corneanu Dimensiune: 6kb Voturi: Tipul fisierelor: doc Acorda si tu o nota acestui referat: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
vezi mai multe detalii vezi mai putine detalii
Raporteaza o eroare
Pyramid (architecture) , ceremonial structures used as tombs or temples that were built by the people of certain ancient civilization , notably the ancient Egyptians , the Aztecs , and the Maya , and certain other ancient peoples of the northern Andean region of South America . The Pyramids of Egypt are of an exact pyramidal form , having four triangular sides that meet at a point at the summit . Pyramids in Central and South America by contrast are flat-topped , and usually have steps leading to the summit.

THE PYRAMIDS
The Egyptian pyramids were built as royal tombs , and were designed to hold the body of the pharaon . Those in Central and South America were temples on the summit of which religious rituals were performed , although they sometimes also served as the tombs of important rulers.

Pyramids in Egypt
In Egypt , the first pyramid were built in about 2700 bc . They probably developed from the mastaba , a low , rectangular tomb with a flat roof , originally built in mudbrick and later in stone . These gradually increased in size and complexity until they looked like a stepped pyramid-that is , a pyramid with sides that rose in giant steps . The most famous example of a step pyramid is the pyramid of Dsozer at Saqqara , which was built in about 2630 bc . It was six steps on each side , each step 60 m (200 ft ) high . Over time , the step pyramid developed into the true pyramid with smooth sides.

The largest and most famous pyramids of ancient Egypt are those that held the bodies of the pharaons Khufu , Khafre , and Menkaure at Giza , near modern Cairo . The Great Pyramid of Khufu has a volume of some 2.6 million cu m (91.8 ,million cu ft ), and it is believed that 2.5 million blocks of stone , each weighing an average of 2.5 tonnes , were used to built it . Each side of the pyramide is 230m (750 ft ) long , and it is 146 m (480 ft )high.

The Pyramid Complex
The pyramids of ancient Egypt were usually planned as part of a group of different buildings known as a pyramid complex or mortuary complex . A typical complex consisted of the main pyramid itself ; smaller pyramids, often built for the pharaon; a mortuary temple ; a causeway leading to the temple where the cult of the pharaon was honoured ; mastaba tombs for relatives of the pharaon and important officials ; funerary pits for lesser officials ; and an enclosure wall . The bestexample of a pyramid complex is that at Giza where boat pits also formed part of the complex .

Building a Pyramide
The pyramids were built by farm labourers , who made up 90 per cent of the population of ancient egypt . Working on the pyramids probably under the supervision of skilled , was a kind of tax that everyone had to pay . The work took place during the three or four months of the year when the Nile was in flood , when fields were underwater and no farming could be done .The way that the pyramids were built is not known for certain . After a site had been chosen , always on the west bank of the Nile (for spiritual reasons ) , the ground was carefully surveyed . The orientation of the pyramid-the precise angle that it was to stand at-would be worked out by astronomers . Building could then begin .

The stone blocks were set in place in such a way as to create terraces so that workmen could stand on the pyramid as it was being built . The passageways and chambers inside the pyramid were constructed as building progressed . The terraces on the outside were later filled in and the pyramid was covered with a smooth layer of limestone . Much of the stone used to build pyramids from local quarries and transported on barges on the Nile . Only the fine limestone , used for making up the outer casing of the pyramide , and the granite that was used for specific chambers , were brought from further away .

The first stone blocks were probably set in place with simple cranes and levers . As construction progressed and the pyramid grew taller , ramps were built so that blocks of stone could be hauled up with ropes . When the pyramid shape was completed the tip of the pyramid was covered in a dark-coloured stone , and the smooth outer casing of contrasting white limestone was added , workingfrom the top of the bottom so that the ramp and scaffolding were gradually cleared . The limestone was polished to make it shine brightly in the sun and reflect moonlight .

  • pag. 1
  • pag. 2
  • pag. 3
  • pag. 4

Nota explicativa
Referatele si lucrarile oferite de Referate.ro au scop educativ si orientativ pentru cercetare academica.

Iti recomandam ca referatele pe care le downloadezi de pe site sa le utilizezi doar ca sursa de inspiratie sau ca resurse educationale pentru conceperea unui referat nou, propriu si original.

Referat.ro te invata cum sa faci o lucrare de nota 10!
Filmele zilei
Linkuri utile
Programeaza-te online la salonul favorit Descarca gratuit aplicatiile pentru iOS si Android Filmulete haioase Filme, poante si cele mai tari faze Jocuri Cele mai tari jocuri de pe net Referate scoala Resurse, lucrari, referate materiale pentru lucrari de nota 10 Bacalaureat 2019 Vezi subiectele examenului de Bacalaureat din 2019 Evaluare Nationala 2019 Ultimele informatii despre evaluare nationala
Toate imaginile, textele sau alte materiale prezentate pe site sunt proprietatea referat.ro fiind interzisa reproducerea integrala sau partiala a continutului acestui site pe alte siteuri sau in orice alta forma fara acordul scris al referat.ro. Va rugam sa consultati Termenii si conditiile de utilizare a site-ului. Informati-va despre Politica de confidentialitate. Daca aveti intrebari sau sugestii care pot ajuta la dezvoltarea site-ului va rugam sa ne scrieti la adresa webmaster@referat.ro.
Confidentialitatea ta este importanta pentru noi

Referat.ro utilizeaza fisiere de tip cookie pentru a personaliza si imbunatati experienta ta pe Website-ul nostru. Te informam ca ne-am actualizat politica de confidentialitate pentru a integra cele mai recente modificari privind protectia persoanelor fizice in ceea ce priveste prelucrarea datelor cu caracter personal. Inainte de a continua navigarea pe Website-ul nostru te rugam sa aloci timpul necesar pentru a citi si intelege continutul Politicii de Cookie. Prin continuarea navigarii pe Website-ul nostru confirmi acceptarea utilizarii fisierelor de tip cookie conform Politicii de Cookie. Nu uita totusi ca poti modifica in orice moment setarile acestor fisiere cookie urmarind instructiunile din Politica de Cookie.


Politica de Cookie
Am inteles