Towards a philosophy of gerontology - version 5

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What is philosophy in general, or what is the specific of philosophy? For Aristotel, philosophy is the knowledge of the first principles and causes - those supreme principles which explain the whole existence(Coltescu, 2002 p.160 ). For Kant, philosophy is knowledge by concepts; or the search of the limits of our cognitive capacities. For Hegel, philosophy is the rational knowledge of absolute. For Wittgenstein, philosophy is the activity of eludation of thoughts. For analitical philosophers, philosophy is the analysis of scientific language or of common language.

Towards a philosophy of gerontology, version 5

1.Introduction.

2.Fundamental gerontological considerations on aging.

2.0.Definition of senescence.

2.1.On the process of senescence.

2.3.The forms of the pressure of time.

2.4. Explanatory-theoretic aspects of senescence.

3. Philosophical thoughts on the explanation of aging.

4. Towards eradication of aging: a philosophical strategy.

1.Introduction: An atempt to mediate a deeper compatibility between
Philosophy and Gerontology

What is philosophy in general, or what is the specific of philosophy?
For Aristotel, philosophy is the knowledge of the first principles and
causes - those supreme principles which explain the whole
existence(Coltescu, 2002 p.160 ). For Kant, philosophy is knowledge by
concepts; or the search of the limits of our cognitive capacities. For
Hegel, philosophy is the rational knowledge of absolute. For
Wittgenstein, philosophy is the activity of eludation of thoughts. For
analitical philosophers, philosophy is the analysis of scientific
language or of common language. For Heidegger, philosophy is the
existential analytics , that is investigating of those modes of being
that are proper to human existent(Dasein);

For Frankfurt school representatives (Marcuse), philosophy is the
critical theory of modern society and of forms of reification and
human alienation in the background of this society. Coltescu
considered that "In its esence, philosophy is this reflection, this
meditation by which we want to understand, to distinguish the sense of
world and of our proper existence---and by understanding, to liberate
us, to conquer our spiritual autonomy"(Coltescu 2002, p.21). Most
philosophers had considered that philosophy is a knowledge,
differences appear either concerning its object( first principles, the
absolute, the universal etc.) or its method (by concepts to Kant) or
its faculty(reason, senses etc). But, is philosophy limited just to a
form of contemplative knowledge disinterested from a practical or
applicative point of view? Tudosescu considers that"...only in limits
in which it conditionate value reedifications at the level of other
forms of social conscience and, respective, modifications in the
structure of the tables of cultural values, so that these to stimulate
changes whith deep character in the structure and dynamics of
civilizations, we can say that philosophy have an applicative
character"(Tudosescu 1997, p.169). Someones had emphasized the
propensity towards universality, the tendency to cover the whole
reality: philosophy is a general conception about the world; it tries
to discern the most general determinations of reality, that is of
nature, society and thinking. But, neither thought is an universal
characteristic of univers nor society. The most general determinations
of world concern either the fundamental-necessary level of reality,
substance, microphysics level, or some characteristics of the univers
as a whole, like evolution or cosmic becoming. Others considered that,
philosophy studies existence in its totality . But Beaufret have
written about Wollf:"Wollf is proposing for himself therefore to make
the census of essentialias, that is of all that it can be said about
being as being. This science is, by consequence, the science of being
as posibility....One can talk about being without to say a word about
its existence. The last is just a "complementum posibilitatis", a
complement of posibility."(Beaufret 1998, p.11). On the other hand,
there are special philosophies, as ethics or ethical philosophy, which
are quasi-disinterested about some ontic or ontological aspects of
reality. There is some autonomy between some philosophical
disciplines, such as there is a certain freedom in human life. An
alternative characterization of philosophy concerns its aims. Thus,
for Rescher the characteristic aims of philosophy are: (i) Provide
answers to those domain definitive questions, that is, propound and
comunicate information that conveys these answers . ( We want
answers.) (ii) Seek for cogency, that is, fit those answers out with a
rationale that attains cogency and conviction by way of evidentiation,
substantiation, and demonstration. (We want not just answers but
answers worthy of acceptance.) (iii) Strive for rational economy,
pursuing the tasks at issue in points (i) and (ii) in a way that is
rationally satisfacatory, that is, in an efficient, effective,
economical ...

The general characterization problem of philosophy relative to its
particular domains or of its specific relative to other cultural
forms---art, religion, science---is a metaphilosophical one. But, how
it can be justified this diversity of opinions about the esence of
philosophy? Coltescu had considered that: "The two levels of
philosophy, [first-order philosophy and metaphilosophy] are in
interaction, are situated in a circularity raport, the thinkers
options in the plane of proper philosophy having effects on their
metaphilosophical conceptions and, converse, their metaphilosophical
conceptions influence their investigations in the plane of proper
philosohy."(Coltescu, 2002, p.18-19).

About the antireduction of philosophy, science, mind and imortality

Like Vacariu et al (2001, p.275), I consider that the previous
characterizations are partly correct but they concern philosophy from
a single perspective, sometimes from a reductionist point of view.
They can be considered as quasi-complementary. However, previous
characterizations, either in particular or taken all together
simultaneouslly, do not succed to surprise all that was, all that is,
all that will be, all that can be philosophy. But, until to what
limits can be philosophy extended and developed? What is philosophy?
Or, can be it unificated? If an unification by reduction at one of the
previous characterizations is inacceptable, still remain a posibility
of unification not by reduction but by an ultimate persistent aim,
ideal. I will ilustrate this with an example from philosophy of
science. Popper considered that truth is the regulative ideal of
science, and in this sense truth may have an unificatory role,
relative to various special sciences, as a common aim, ideal, tack
toward all the scientific propensities converge. But, truth single
maybe is a too strong criterion of scientificity and is not enough as
an ideal of science, because the common statements as "the sun is
brilliant" are not veritable scientific statements, because they are
too common-truths. More constrains are needed. In addition, science
should to pursue also sistematic explanation, the laws and the freedom
grades of universe at all its levels, from microcosmos to individual
human conscience, society and macrocosmos.

Against antistructural reductionism

Fetzer assume that science aims at the discovery of laws of nature
that have the form of general principles that are applicabile for the
purposes of explanation and prediction. On the other hand, science
should not to prefere simplicity and economy necessarly. Simpler
theories ought to be prefered to complex alternatives only in the
cases in wich they are also adequate, truth. I addition, we do not
know a priori that reality is simple. Other think that, science tend
towards unity(cf. Gold and Stoljar, 1999). However, science should to
pursue unity only in the case in wich world is realy unitary. But, we
do not know a priori that universe have an ultimate universal unity.
This aims are preferable but they are contingent aims, thereby they
have a contingent scientific value. Maybe, the universe have a
fundamental ontological level wich have a necessary existence, and
consequently is universal, for/in every posible world, but the
universe unity should not be identified with the unity of science. The
unity of universe exist at the fundamental ontological level, but the
unity of human science is at the level of human conscious level. The
human consciousness is something that exist at an upper ontological
level, that depend on a more complex level of organization. If the
"elementary particles" are not elementary, if there exist an ultimate
unique-type-of-ontological-primitive, however, "organization is a
property wich cannot be reduced to the properties of its parts, for
the behavior of each part depends on those of the others and on the
aims of the whole."(Del Re, 1998). By previous phrase I have not
intentioned to defend the autonomy of chemistry, biology or of
psychology against microphysics's imperialism. I only intended to
criticize the tendency to reduce all the emergent properties of
...

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