A history of the celebration of christmas
Christmas wasn't celebrated by the early church until the fourth century. In the fourth century, the church decided to try to redeem a Roman pagan winter solstice festival: the festival of Saturnalia. This December holiday was considered the "birthday of the unconquered sun." Romans danced in the streets with gifts under their arms and greenery atop their heads.
The Catholic Church valued music greatly and it is no wonder that the early Christmas songs date from 4th century (the earliest known is Jesus refulsit omnium by St.Hilary of Poitiers). The Mediaeval Christmas music followed the Gregorian tradition.
Historians are unsure exactly when Christians first began celebrating the Nativity of Christ.However , most scholars believe that Christmas originated in the 4th century as a Christian substitute for pagan celebrations of the winter solstice.Before the introduction of Christmas , each year beginning on December 17 Romans honored Saturn , the ancient god of agriculture , in a festival called Saturnalia. This festival lasted for 7 days and included the winter solstice , which usually occurred around December 25 on the ancient Julian calendar.
The snowflakes are big . Me, Giovanna and Mary are going to make a big snowman . We are waiting for Santa Clause , who is coming with many presents . Mothers are making food for Christmas . Neighbours disect the pigs .Christmas is expected very much by children because they like singing carols .
And there were in the same country shepherds abiding in the field, keeping watch over their flock by night. And, lo, the angel of the Lord came upon them, and the glory of the Lord shone round about
them; and they were sore afraid. And the angel said unto them, Fear not; for, behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy, which
shall be to all people.
Throughout these festivities , all the theatres in Great Britain present pantomimes , providing entertainment to both young and old. Some of the most popular pantomime characters are Robinson Crusoe , Cinderella , Peter Pan , Pussy in Boots and Mother Goose.
It took 8 years, 5 major contractors and the relentless labour of 432 construction workers to build Tower Bridge. Two massive piers had to be sunk into the river bed to support the construction, over 11,000 tons of steel provided the framework for the Towers and Walkways. This was then clad in Cornish granite and Portland stone, both to protect the underlying steelwork and to give the Bridge a more pleasing appearance.
You can find out more about the building of Tower Bridge and the people involved in its construction when you visit The Tower Bridge Exhibition.
History of Bistrita - The capital city is Bistrita with a population of 83,000 as of January 1, 2004. At the time Christopher Columbus discovered America, people of Bistrita were in the process of building the evangelic church, a 246ft tall building. 700 years ago Bistrita was already one of the most important cities in Transilvania.
History of Bistrita - Bistrita City is located on the Bistrita Valley, at the foot of the Borgo Mountains, not far away from Borgo Pass, at important trade routes.
African American History or Black American History, a history of black people in the United States from their arrival in the Americas in the 15th century until the present day. In 1996, 33.9 million Americans, about one out of every eight people in the United States, were black. Although blacks from the West Indies and other areas have migrated to the United States in the 20th century, most African Americans were born in the United States, and this has been true since the Martin Luther King, Jr.
Naturally, the still-living did not want to be possessed. So on the night of October 31, villagers would extinguish the fires in their homes, to make them cold and undesirable. They would then dress up in all manner of ghoulish costumes and noisily paraded around the neighborhood, being as destructive as possible in order to frighten away spirits looking for bodies to possess.
The first mention of the birthday of Jesus is from the year 354. Gradually all Christian churches, except Armenians (celebrating 6th January which date is for others the baptismal day of Jesus and the day of the three Magi), accepted the day. In American/English tradition the Christmas Day itself is the day for Santa, in German/Scandinavian tradition the Christmas Eve is reserved for presents.
Moreover, in 273 Emperor Aurelianus had invented a new pagan religion, the cult of Sol Invictus (invincible sun, the same as the Iranian god Mithra), the birthday of this god being 25th December (natalis sol invicti). The Christian priests obviously saw this choice as doubly meritorious: using the old customary and popular feasting date but changing the rough pagan ways into a more civilized commemoration.
The first mention of the birthday of Jesus is from the year 354.
In Long Beach, California, people can admire a modern replica of the egyptains pyramids. They have inspierd us, they gave a good and normal sense to development. They gave us "a place of ascendance". The examples are more, much more. We can talk about Roman Empire and it's army. The roman legions taught a very important war lesson to all armyes: organization. On this base, the republic of Rome becomend the Great Roman Empire who dominated the world.
The White House, located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., in Washington DC, has been the home of every U.S. president since John Adams. The presidential mansion is situated on some 18 acres (7.3 hectares) of land amid a parklike setting. The building’s main section measures 170 feet (52 meters) long and 85 feet (26 meters) deep. Its 2˝ stories are mounted on an English basement, which, because of the slope of land, becomes a ground floor, on the south side. Two wings flank the original structure. The West Wing was constructed in 1902, following a Congressional appropriation of $ 65,196. It contains the Oval (presidential) Office, the Roosevelt or staff meeting room, a reception room, and the Cabinet Room. French doors within the president’s office open onto the Rose Garden, which continues to follow the plan of an 18th century flower garden. The president regularly receives official visitors in the Rose Garden. The East Wing was built in 1942 and contains offices for presidential ...
THE SLAVE TRADE
Portuguese traders brought the first African slaves for agricultural labor to the Caribbean in 1502. From then until 1860, it is estimated that more than 10 million people were transported from Africa to the Americas. The great majority were brought to the Caribbean, Brazil, or the Spanish colonies of Central and South America. Only about 6 percent were traded in British North America.
Christmas crackers were invented in the late 19th century by an enterprising English baker , Tom Smith , eho , by 1900 , was selling 13 million worldwide each year , and Christmas cards only became commonplace in the 1870s , although the first one was produced in London in 1846 . The familiar image of Santa Claus , complete with sled , reindeers , and sack of toys , is an American invention ehich first appeared in a drawing by Thomas Nast in Harper’s Magazine in 1868 , although the legend of Father Christmas is ancient and complex , being partly derived from St. Nicholas and a jovial medieval figure , the “spirit of Christmas “ . In Russia , he traditionally carries a pink piglet under his arm .
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