The Christmas Tree
The tradition of decorating trees occurs among many different people. The Celts for example decorated trees with apples and nuts during the winter solstice (around December 21), encouraging the sun to return to bring spring. Other European people had tree decorating rituals.
In the 7th century a monk from Crediton, Devonshire, went to Germany to teach the Word of God. He did many good works there, and spent much time in Thuringia, an area which was to become the cradle of the Christmas Decoration Industry.
Legend has it that he used the triangular shape of the Fir Tree to describe the Holy Trinity of God the Father, Son and Holy Spirit.
The converted people began to revere the Fir tree as God's Tree, as they had previously revered the Oak. By the 12th century it was being hung, upside-down, from ceilings at Christmastime in Central Europe, as a symbol of Christianity.The first record of the Christmas tree (as we know it) dates back to Riga in Latvia, in 1510. ...
There are many roots of this custom. There is St.Nicholas the anonymous benefactor, there is the tradition of Magi giving precious gifts to Jesus, there is the Roman custom of giving gifts of good luck to children during Saturnalia. The day of gift giving varies greatly in different Christian cultures and times:
6th December - in memory of St. Nicholas
24th December - Christmas Eve
25th December - Birthday of Jesus
1st of January - the New year
6th of January - The Epiphany, day of the Three Wise men, the Magi
Historians are unsure exactly when Christians first began celebrating the Nativity of Christ.However , most scholars believe that Christmas originated in the 4th century as a Christian substitute for pagan celebrations of the winter solstice.Before the introduction of Christmas , each year beginning on December 17 Romans honored Saturn , the ancient god of agriculture , in a festival called Saturnalia. This festival lasted for 7 days and included the winter solstice , which usually occurred around December 25 on the ancient Julian calendar.
The snowflakes are big . Me, Giovanna and Mary are going to make a big snowman . We are waiting for Santa Clause , who is coming with many presents . Mothers are making food for Christmas . Neighbours disect the pigs .Christmas is expected very much by children because they like singing carols .
And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed.(And this taxing was first made when Cyrenius was governor of Syria.) And all went to be taxed, every one into his own city. And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judaea, unto the city of David, which is called Bethlehem; (because he was of the house and lineage of David)
December 26-th is called Boxing Day. It takes its name from the old custom of giving employees or tradesmen an annual present or “Christmas box” on the day . It is the day of recover after all the excitement and food which most of the time prove a little too much.
The usual salutation at Christmas is “A merry Christmas to you” , and the reply is “The same to you”.
The big problem for the Corporation of London was how to build a bridge downstream from London Bridge without disrupting river traffic activities. To get as many ideas as possible, the "Special Bridge or Subway Committee" was formed in 1876, and opened the design of the new crossing to public competition.
The practice of sending Christmas greeting cards to friends was initiated by Sir Henry Cole in England. The year was 1843 and the first card was designed by J.C.Horsley. It was commercial - 1000 copies were sold in London. An English artist, William Egley, produced a popular card in 1849. From the beginning the themes have been as varied as the Christmas customs worldwide.
Education, History of, theories, methods, and administration of schools and other agencies of information from ancient times to the present. Education developed from the human struggle for survival and enlightenment. It may be formal or informal. Informal education refers to the general social process by which human beings acquire the knowledge and skills needed to function in their culture.
The traditional date for the appearance of Santa Claus, obviously from the birthdate of Jesus (the word Christmas is from old English, meaning Christ's mass). This date is near the shortest day of the year, from old times an important agricultural and solar feasting period in Europe. The actual birthday of Jesus is not known and thus the early Church Fathers in the 4th century fixed the day as was most convenient. The best fit seemed to be around the old Roman Saturnalia festival (17 - 21 December), a traditional pagan festivity with tumultuous and unruly celebrations.
In the first decade of the nineteenth century, he turned the armies of France against almost every major European power, dominating continental Europe through a lengthy streak of military victories--epitomized through battles such as Austerlitz and Friedland--and through the formation of extensive alliance systems.
Construction of the White House was begun in 1792 after an architectural competition won by James Hoban, an Irish born architect who had immigrated to America some years earlier. After many delays and financial problems the building was habitable (but not completed) in 1800, when President John Adams and his wife, Abigail, moved in. Hoban’s original drawing of the north façade, which has survived, reflects the English-Palladian architecture of the mid 18th century.
Africans and their descendants have been a part of the story of the Americas at least since the late 1400s. As scouts, interpreters, navigators, and military men, blacks were among those who first encountered Native Americans. Beginning in the colonial period, African Americans provided most of the labor on which European settlement, development, and wealth depended, especially after European wars and diseases decimated Native Americans.
How could a nation of such diversity meld together so many different humans? Alexis de Tocqueville, another Frenchman who traveled to the United States, was fascinated with this question. He knew that the nation had to find some kind of glue to bind together so many different peoples. He found that glue in the American political system that had developed by the 1830s—a politics of participation based on the notion that to be legitimate and lasting, a government had to derive its power from the people. These principles were part of the political system created by the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States. This system aimed to create “one federated whole,” but this was an ideal yet to be accomplished. Today, the American people are still reaching for that ideal.
World War I broke out in Europe in the summer of 1914. The war set Germany and Austria-Hungary (the Central Powers) against the United Kingdom, France, and Russia (the Allied Powers), and eventually involved many more nations. The United States declared itself a neutral nation, but neutrality proved elusive. For three years, as Europeans faced war on an unprecedented scale, the neutrality so popular in the United States gradually slipped away.
Christmas crackers were invented in the late 19th century by an enterprising English baker , Tom Smith , eho , by 1900 , was selling 13 million worldwide each year , and Christmas cards only became commonplace in the 1870s , although the first one was produced in London in 1846 . The familiar image of Santa Claus , complete with sled , reindeers , and sack of toys , is an American invention ehich first appeared in a drawing by Thomas Nast in Harper’s Magazine in 1868 , although the legend of Father Christmas is ancient and complex , being partly derived from St. Nicholas and a jovial medieval figure , the “spirit of Christmas “ . In Russia , he traditionally carries a pink piglet under his arm .
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