In 1533, during the reign of Henry VIII, England broke from the Roman Catholic Church to form the Anglican Church, which became the established church of the country, of which the monarch is head. The Church of England no longer has any political power, although its archbishops and some bishops still sit in the House of Lords.
There are about 27 million Anglicans in the UK, although relatively few attend church. Roman Catholics number more than 5 million, Presbyterians about 2 million, Methodists about 700,000, and Jews about 400,000. Numerous other religions are practised in England, and in many cities there are significant Muslim and Hindu communities. Society is secular, and religious education in schools now embraces a wide range of religions, not only Christianity.
GREETINGS AND GESTURES
Many English people will simply say “Hello”, but a handshake is the formal way of greeting and parting. On first meeting, “How do you do?” or a less formal ...
Sarsen stones are hard-grained sandstone with a silaceous cement. They were probably brought to the site from the Marlborough Downs, about 30 kilometres to the north of Stonehenge.
During Elizabeth’s reign, England expanded trade overseas and the merchant community grew. Private shipbuilding boomed and navigational advances made long sea voyages safer. England’s chief commodity was woolen cloth, traded mostly at the Dutch port of Antwerp for finished goods and such luxuries as French wines. Cloth exports grew over the course of the reign, but suffered from competition from finer Spanish products and from Antwerp’s decline after its harbor silted up and became impassable by the mid-1560s. In the 1560s financier Sir Thomas Gresham founded the Royal Exchange to help merchants find secure markets for their goods.
This first child was a stillborn daughter born prematurely in January 1510. This disappointment was soon followed by another pregnancy. Prince Henry was born on January 1, 1511 and the was christened on the 5th. There were great celebrations for the birth of the young prince, but they were halted by the baby's death after 52 days of life. Catherine then had a miscarriage, followed by a short-lived son. On February 1516, she gave birth a daughter named Mary, and this child lived.
Nash designed the building with Marble Arch as the main entrance. Marble Arch was later moved to Hyde Park. It was not until 1837 that Queen Victoria made Buckingham Palace the royal family's principal London residence.
London Eye - Designed by architects David Marks and Julia Barfield, the wheel carries 32 sealed, air conditioned, passenger capsules attached to its external circumference. It rotates at a rate of 0.26 metres per second (about 0.9 km/h or 0.6 mph) so that one revolution takes about 30 minutes to complete.
The Liver Building is central. (Closeup view) Liverpool is situated along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary, with the city centre located about 5 miles inland from the Irish Sea. Liverpool has a varied topography being built across a ridge of hills rising up to a height of around 70 metres above sea-level at Everton Hill. The city's urban area runs directly into Bootle and Crosby in Sefton, Huyton and Prescot in Knowsley. It faces Wallasey and Birkenhead across the River Mersey.
Britain is a parliamentary democracy. Herb Majesty Queen Elizabeth II,
who succeeded to the throne in 1952, is Head of State, with a largely
ceremonial role. The House of Commons and House of
Lords, with the monarch, comprise. The Prime Minister heads the
Government and appoints ministers. The Commons has 651 elected
Members, each representing a local constituency or area Elections, in
which citizens over 18 may vote by secret ballot, are held at lest
every five years.
Stonehenge, prehistoric ritual monument, situated on Salisbury Plain in south-western England and dating from the Neolithic (late Stone Age) and Bronze Age. It is the most celebrated of the megalithic monuments in England, and the most important prehistoric structure in Europe. Although its precise purpose is unknown, it is likely to have been a tribal gathering place or religious centre connected with astronomical observations.
Northern Ireland, province, integral part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, situated in the north-eastern portion of the island of Ireland. Northern Ireland is bounded on the north and north-east by the North Channel, on the south-east by the Irish Sea; on the south and west it has a 488 km (303 mi) border with the Republic of Ireland. It includes Rathlin Island in the North Channel and several smaller offshore islands.
Northern Ireland is also known as Ulster, because it comprises six of the nine counties that constituted the former Irish province of Ulster. The total land area of Northern Ireland is 13,483 sq km (5,206 sq mi). Belfast is the capital of Northern Ireland.
Elizabeth’s reign was marked by her effective use of Parliament and the Privy Council, a small advisory body of the important state officials, and by the development of legal institutions in the English counties. Elizabeth firmly established Protestantism in England, encouraged English enterprise and commerce, and defended the nation against the powerful Spanish naval force known as the Spanish Armada. Her reign was noted for the English Renaissance, an outpouring of poetry and drama led by William Shakespeare, Edmund Spenser, and Christopher Marlowe that remains unsurpassed in English literary history (see English Literature). She was the last of the Tudor monarchs, never marrying or producing an heir, and was succeeded by her cousin, James VI of Scotland.
Following World War II, the economic and cultural influence of the United States increased and English permeated other cultures, chiefly through development of telecommunications technology. Because a working knowledge of English is required in many fields, professions, and occupations, education ministries throughout the world mandate the teaching of English to, at least, a basic level.
There are many roots of this custom. There is St.Nicholas the anonymous benefactor, there is the tradition of Magi giving precious gifts to Jesus, there is the Roman custom of giving gifts of good luck to children during Saturnalia.
Wives remained at home and became ladies of the house in every sense of the word;Victorian upper class women were now idealized (but it was spiritual worship that confined women in the home), and most of them portrayed the Victorian ideal of womanhood: chaste, ornamental women who were society's moral guardians, but still dependent on the goodwill of their devoted male worshippers.
Scotland is one of the four countries which form The United Kingdom – England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. People from England are ‘English’, people from Wales are ‘Welsh’, people from Northern Ireland are ‘Northern Irish’, and those who live in Scotland are ‘Scottish’. But all the people who live in the United Kingdom are called “British”.
Following the withdrawal of the Roman legions to Gaul (modern France) around 400, the British Isles fell into a very dark period of several centuries from which almost no written records survive. The Roman-British culture that had existed under 400 years of Roman rule disappeared under relentless invasion and migration by barbarians. Celts came over from Ireland (a tribe called the Scotti gave their name to the northern part of the main island, Scotland). Saxons and Angles came from Germany, Frisians from modern Holland, and Jutes from modern Denmark. By 600, the Angles and Saxons controlled most of modern England. By 800, only modern Wales, Scotland, and West Cornwall remained in largely Celtic hands.
Elizabethan England did not have as many printing presses as some of the European countries , but the industry was a growing business . “Chapmen” , or wandering pedlars , sold “chapbooks” of popular stories and ballads to poorer social groups . Gentlemen could afford more expensive books , often the classical authors such as Livy , Tacitus and Aristotle . Religious books were popular and allowed English Protestants to read works by Martin Luther or John Calvin .
Culture and Entertainment
Elizabethan Style , in English art , is a period between the Gothic and Renaissance style . It reached its apogee in the late 1500s , towards the end of the reign of Queen Elizabeth I , and is often considered the last phrase of the long- lasting of Tudor style . Althought the Elizabethan age produced a certain amount of characteristic sculpture (particularly tomb sculpture) and ...
Pe aproximativ aceleasi coordonate organizatorice au fost infiintate si alte societati romano-straine cu parteneri italieni,vest-germani,francezi,japonezi,evident cu alte optiuni asupra conducerii directe a unor activitati.In acest sens mentionam societatile:RIFIL,RESITA-RENK,OLTCIT,ELAROM,ROLISHIP.
7. Regiunea West South Central (Central-sud-vestică)
Cuprinsă între valea fluviului Mississipi la est si Muntii Stincosi la vest, Podisul Ozark la nord si tarmul Golfului Mexic la sud, regiunea ocupa 13% din suprafata S.U.A si detine peste 9% din populatie.
Condiţiile naturale sînt destul de variate. Astfel, în extremitatea de sud - sud-est, în lungul ţărmului Golfului Mexic, se întinde o cîmpie litorală joasă, lagunară, cu domuri de sare. O unitate aparte o formează delta fluviului Mississippi, cuprinsă în limitele statului Louisiana. Cfmpia fluviului Mississippi, destul de joasă şi mlăştinoasă, a fost în bună măsură asanată, devenind o importantă zonă agricolă.
În restul teritoriului se întinde Podişul Preriilor, care, spre vest, devine accidentat, altitudinile oscilînd între 1000 şi 1 500 m.
Depresiunile adînci ale văilor Arkansas, Pecos şi Red River sînt renumite prin importantele zăcăminte de petrol şi gaze naturale. Regiunea este o mare ...
Medie note: 8.30 / 10
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