Iluminism in english literature
This period extends from about 450 to 1066, the year of the Norman-French conquest of England. The Germanic tribes from Europe who overran England in the 5th century, after the Roman withdrawal, brought with them the Old English, or Anglo-Saxon, language, which is the basis of Modern English. They brought also a specific poetic tradition, the formal character of which remained surprisingly constant until the termination of their rule by the Norman-French invaders six centuries later.
Much of Old English poetry was probably intended to be chanted, with harp accompaniment by the bard. Often bold and strong, but also mournful and elegiac in spirit, this poetry emphasizes the sorrow and ultimate futility of life and the helplessness of humans before the power of fate. Almost all this poetry is composed without rhyme, in a characteristic line, or verse, of four stressed syllables alternating with an indeterminate number of unstressed ones.
This line strikes strangely on ears habituated ...
By the end of the 19th century American drama was moving steadily toward realism, illuminating the rough or seamy side of life and creating more believable characters. Realism remained the dominant trend of the 20th century in both comedies and tragedies. American drama achieved international recognition with the psychological realism of plays by Eugene O’Neill and their searing investigation of characters’ inner lives. As the century advanced, the number of topics considered suitable for drama broadened to encompass race, gender, sexuality, and death.
Beginnings: 1600s AND 1700s
Because settlement was sparse and living conditions were arduous in the American colonies, little theatrical activity took place before the mid-18th century. The first-known English-language play from the colonies, Ye Bare and Ye Cubb (1665), is lost. The play’s existence is known as a result of the controversy it aroused in the Virginia Colony, where a lawsuit was filed to prevent the play from ...
Elizabeth firmly established Protestantism in England, encouraged English enterprise and commerce, and defended the nation against the powerful Spanish naval force known as the Spanish Armada. Her reign was noted for the English Renaissance, an outpouring of poetry and drama led by William Shakespeare, Edmund Spenser, and Christopher Marlowe that remains unsurpassed in English literary history (see English Literature). She was the last of the Tudor monarchs, never marrying or producing an heir, and was succeeded by her cousin, James VI of Scotland.
II Background And Early Life
Elizabeth was born at Greenwich Palace in London on September 7, 1533. Her parents, Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, wanted a son as heir and were not pleased with the birth of a daughter. When she was two her mother was beheaded for adultery, and Elizabeth was exiled from court. She was later placed under the protection of Catherine Parr, Henry’s sixth wife, and educated in the same household as her half-brother, ...
I have chosen the most appropriate words underlined:
1. Won’t you have some more salad?
2. There are many more sheep on this farm.
3. Have what you like. There are plenty more where these come from.
4. She’s running for Parliament in the next election.
5. A number of shoppers have complained about the price increases.
Throughout the modern history, the English-speaking countries have, somehow, dominated the global economy.
First, there was The Commonwealth – the British colonies, which included Canada, India, Australia, New Zealand, and other parts of the world. The British administration was installed in those territories, and along with it, domination over every economical domain like trading and industry.
English was declared the official language of these colonies.
Then, in the last few decades, the USA has become the largest economical power of the world, reaching a very high level of development.
Nowadays, it is the European Union’s aim to achieve a greater degree of economic and monetary harmonization between the European ...
Following World War II, the economic and cultural influence of the United States increased and English permeated other cultures, chiefly through development of telecommunications technology. Because a working knowledge of English is required in many fields, professions, and occupations, education ministries throughout the world mandate the teaching of English to, at least, a basic level.
If you look at Catiline—that dreary Pyrrhic victory of tragedy—you find two passages to be successful: Act ii. scene I, the dialogue of the political ladies, and the Prologue of Sylla's ghost. These two passages are genial. The soliloquy of the ghost is a characteristic Jonson success in content and in versification—
Dost thou not feel me, Rome? not yet! is night So heavy on thee, and my weight so light? Can Sylla's ghost arise within thy walls, Less threatening than an earthquake, the quick falls Of thee and thine? Shake not the frighted heads Of thy steep towers, or shrink to their first beds? Or as their ruin the large Tyber fills, Make that swell up, and drown thy seven proud hills?...
This is the learned, but also the creative, Jonson. Without concerning himself with the character of Sulla, and in lines of invective, Jonson makes Sylla's ghost, while the words are spoken, a living and terrible force. The words fall with as determined beat as if they were the will of the morose ...
“Robinson Crusoe” has been read as a gripping adventure story, as a myth of economic man, as a political and social allegory, and as a symbolic statement using the conventions of spiritual autobiography. First published in 1719, the account of the seaman who was shipwrecked and spent twenty-eight years on a desert island has become one of the most famous stories in English literature.
The book represents an adventure novel, the main character reflecting the author’s subconscious.
It was written by Daniel Defoe who was born in London in 1660. He was the author of works in many genres, ranging over politics, economics, history, biography and crime. Among his best-known novels are “Robinson Crusoe”(1719), “Moll Flanders”, and “Roxana”(1724).
It was made to prove Defoe’s belief in man’s survival in a different world.
He did it by basing the story on real facts. It is perhaps as complex a book as Defoe is as man and writer. It is to see Defoe as a journalist, as a ...
Influente renascentiste in literatura romana
Prin expediţia întreprinsă de Magellan, între 1519-1522, dispar şi ultimele îndoieli asupra formei sferice a pământului. Literatura renscentistă nu poate fi separată de celelalte arte, fenomenul manifestându-se pe mai multe nivele: în arta plastică, în sculptură, arhitectură, muzică şi opinii. Astfel, după secole în care personalitatea şi individualismul au fost renegate, Renaşterea pune în centrul ideologiei sale fiinţa umană (Viziunea teocentrică se transformă într-una antropocentrică).
A doua zi ,copilul se întoarce in pădure ,sperând ca melcul să fi supravieţuit ,dar găseşte urmele unei tragedii.El incearcă sa învie melcul ,dar totul este zadarnic ,pentru că acesta este mort şi îngheţat .Acest joc are efecte tragice pentru melc,deoarece acesta moare şi grave pentru copil deoarece este cuprins de remuşcari ,jocul fiind totodată o experienţă de cunoaştere,care-i marchează inocenţa.
Sinteza a normelor limbii romane literare din acea epoca,limba lui Varlaam se prezinta unitara pe plan fonetic,lexical,morfologic si sintactic,numeroasele slavonisme bisericesti,curente in cartile religioase ale vremii(tiparituri si manuscrise) nu apar in scrisul mitropolitului moldovean.
In 1728 Montesquieu a inceput sa calatoreasca, mergand in Anglia in 1731 unde a devenit membru al Societatii Regale, a studiat Parlamentul in sesiune si si-a facut prieteni printre filosofi si politicieni. Dupa reantoarcerea sa in Franta a publicat consideratii asupra cauzelor grandorii si decadentei romanilor (1734), o lucrare pregatitoare a cartii ce avea sa-l faca celebru in Intreaga lume si care a necesitat inca 16 ani de lucru. Aceasta avea sa fie o carte despre lege si politica si autorul a citit mult si cu mare atentie lucari de istorie, drept, economic si teorii politice.
Literatura contemporana fara prejudecati - Ei devin,deci,fondatorii literaturii fara prejudecati,in care dorintele nu mai sunt refulate,gandurile nu mai sunt inabusite si in care sufletul omenesc devine limpede,translucid.
Explozia literaturii scrisa de tineri,pentru care sexualitatea nu mai constituie un tabu,nici macar o provocare,ci un dat firesc,isi afla un penetrant varf de lance erogena in opera lui Kiki Vasilescu.
“Invingandu-mi aprehensiunile,am purces la o lectura dezinhibata si am avut revelatia celui mai bun roman pe care-l voi citi anul acesta”,spune Dragos Vasile.
Am dat peste o scriitura vioaie,ritmata inteligent,cu o foarte mica ostentatie post-textualista si cu o asumare ironica a scenariului matein,inclus cu preluarea parodica a numelor celor patru crai.In plus,matrix-ul sensual-decadent al universului drugs& sex poarta tot sigla Arnoteilor,”a adevaratilor arnoteni”,cu desfasurare de forte erotice tipice pentru Vama Veche dar ...
Iluminismul a aparut in secolul 17 in Anglia constituindu-se intr-o miscare de idei care se opunea ideologiei de tip feudal. Evenimentul care marcheaza inceputul acestui curent este revolutia burgheza din Anglia(1688). “Actul de nastere” al iluminsmului poate fi considerat votarea de catre parlamentul englez a “ Declaratie Drepturilor Omului”.Iluminismul in Franta
Iluminismul romanesc.Programul politic al miscarii este sintetizat in memoriul din 1791, "Supplex libellus valachorum Transsilvaniae" trimis imparatului Leopold II, prin care se cerea recunoasterea romanilor din Transilvania ca natiune egala in drepturi cu celelalte ce intrau in componenta Imperiului Habsburgic.
Iluminismul francez:Trăsătura definitorie a acestei mişcări a fost încrederea în raţiune ca sursă primordială a intregii cunoaşteri , care e linie directoare a activităţilor umane şi măsură a tuturor valorilor.În lucrarea sa „Ce este Iluminismul?”, Kant a definit în anul 1784 aceasta mişcare ca pe o atingere de către om a maturităţii intelectuale.
Iluminism - In Anglia, Olanda, Franta si Spania, o importanta deosebita o au schimburile comerciale si de idei spirituale, culturale si teologice, care puneau accent pe filosofia experimental rationala. In Franta, este introdusa prin René Descartes, cu prilejul revolutiei franceze din 1789.
Actiunea se desfasoara in Muntenia lui Vlad Tepes. Domnitorul se hotaraste sa-i inaremeze pe tigani pentu a lupta impotriva turcilor deoarece dorea sa evite folosirea acestora ca iscoade. Pentru a-i convinge Vlad voda le promite o localitate numita Spateni unde acestia sa se organizeze intr-o formatiune statala. Tiganii se lasa greu convinsi, mai intai avand loc un sfat care are rolul de-ai evidentia caracterul eterogen si instabil.
Medie note: 8.28 / 10
Iti recomandam ca referatele pe care le downloadezi de pe site sa le utilizezi doar ca sursa de inspiratie sau ca resurse educationale pentru conceperea unui referat nou, propriu si original.
Referat.ro te invata cum sa faci o lucrare de nota 10!