Martin luther king referat

Renasterea si Martin Luther

Renasterea si Martin Luther - Exista o arta promovata de mestesugarii dintre care s-a ridicat renumitul poet-muzician, cizmarul Hans Sachs. In universitati, stiintele se studiaza impreuna cu teologia. Subiectul operelor de arta va fi constituit dintr-o bogata tematica luata din viata de zi cu zi. Renasterea si Martin Luther

Renasterea si Martin Luther - Compozitorii vremii compun lucrari in care se observa spiritul umanist al vremii. Apar noi genuri: balada, madrigalul, care oglindesc noua orientare ce conduce creatia artistica.

Secolul al XIV-lea este cunoscut in muzica sub denumirea de Ars Nova, termen preluat dupa titlul unei lucrari teoretice a muzianului Philippe de Vitry (1291-1361).

In lucrarea acestuia sunt consemnate unele innoiri aparute in arta muzicala, in comparatie cu lucrarile maestrilor scolii de la Notre Dame, ce apartin artei vechi (Ars Antiqua). Vitry face unele precizari legate de arta compozitionala: succesiunea de cuvinte si octave perfecte trebuie evitata, ...

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Materia: Muzica

Renasterea - arhitectura, scupltura, pictura, muzica

Renaşterea a început în Italia, deoarece era cea mai bogată ţară din Europa şi era posesoarea unei îndelungate tradiţii artistice. Avea multe oraşe independente, înfloritoare economic, populate cu comercianţi şi bancheri nerăbdători să-şi vadă numele imortalizat în diferite portrete comandate, în palate noi care se construiau sau în capelele somptuoase ale familiilor.

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Muzica si inceputurile ei

Muzica si inceputurile ei:Melodia este elementul de baza al muzicii. Ea poate fi foarte simpla, sau complexa, dar este intotdeauna expresiva si emotionanla. De aceea l-a insotit pe om de la inceputurile existentei sale si a evoluat odata cu nazuintele sale spirituale. La inceput muzica era fara ritm in acceptiunea moderna a cuvantului, se canta la unison si nu avea un centru tonal de gravitatie.Muzica si inceputurile ei

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Renasterea

Precursori ai Renaşterii
Curente înnoitoare în viaţa culturală au existat şi înainte de epoca propriu zisă a Renaşterii, care însă cuprindeau doar un strat subţire al societăţii înalte de curte.

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Reforma bisericii

Dar atacul lui Luther viza un raspuns mult mai larg, in afara cercurilor de carturari, iar ideile sale s-au raspandit cu o rapiditate de necrezut datorita unei inventii relativ recente-tiparnita. Miile de pamflete si carti iesite de sub tipar au dat o noua dimesiune disputelor doctrinare din secolul XVI, cu serioase repercursiuni.

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Martin Luther

E de mentionat ca in Transilvania toate bisericile catolice au trecut spontan la reforma renuntandu-se cu acordul general al Enionasilor si preotilor la randuiala catolica.

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Martin Luther

6. The Pope has no power to remit any guilt, except by declaring and warranting it to have been remitted by God; or at most by remitting cases reserved for himself; in which cases, if his power were despised, guilt would certainly remain.

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Martin Luther

Aceasta credinta a lui Luther l-a facut sa intre in conflict cu Biserica Catolica 1517. Papa Leo al X-lea pentru a strange fonduri pentru construirea bisericii Sfanta Peter’s Basilica din Roma, a vandut indulgente oamenilor. Aceste indulgente erau folosite pentru iertarea pactelor contra cost. Luther era impotriva acestora.

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Martin Luther - tabel cronologic

1502
2 iulie Electorul Frederick cel Intelept intemeiaza Universitatea Wittenberg.

Septembrie Luther ia bacalaureatul si termina al 30 intr-un grup de 57.
29 Septembrie Luther isi primeste diploma de bacalaureat si incepe sa studieze pentru Masterate.

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Martin Luther

Aceste teze au circulat repede prin Germania şi au cauzat o mare controversa. Papa a ordonat ca Luther sa apara in fata Cardinalului Cajetan din Augsburg. Cardinalul I-a cerut sa retraga tot ce a zis. Luther a zis ca face acest lucru doar daca I se dovedeste in biblie ca el greseste.

In 1520 Luther a publicat trei opere fundamentale: ,,Apel catre nobilimea germana'', ,,Robia babiloneana a bisericii'', ,,Libertatea crestinului''. De acum, Luther se afla intr-o pozitie dificila. La 15 iunie 1520 a fost atentionat printr-o bula papala si somat sa isi retracteze opiniile.

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Martin Luther si John Calvin

Astfel, pe data de 19 octombrie 1512 Luther a ajuns sa absolve ca si doctor in teologie, incepand sa predea teologie si studii biblice in Wittenberg incepand de la data de 16 august 1513. In acest context al sarcinii sale universitare, Luther si-a format primele sale idei privitoare la justificarea (indreptatirea) prin credinta.

Rolul decisiv in formularea teologiei lui Luther a fost jucat de catre apostolul Pavel si de teologia augustiniana. La scurt timp dupa realizarea exegezei sale a pasajului Romani 1:16-17, Luther a concluzionat ca indreptatirea este undar al lui Dumnezeu ce poate fi insusit doar prin credinta: "Zi si noapte, am cugetat pana ce am putut sa vad legatura dintre dreptatea lui Dumnezeu si afirmatia ca 'cel neprihanit va trai prin credinta'.

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King arthur and the knight of the round table

Sir Gaheris
Sir Gaheris was the son of King Lot of Orkney and his wife Morgause, sister of King Arthur, before being knighted he was squire to his elder brother Gawaine. Sir Gaheris married Lynette on the day his brother Gareth married hersister, Dame Lionesse, of the Castle Perilous.

Sir Galahad
Galahad was the natural son of Launcelot. His name may be of Welsh origin or come from the place name Gilead in Palestine. His mother was Elaine, and he was placed in a nunnery as a child, being that the abbess there was his great aunt.

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Shakespeare`s King Lear

Besides, the plot line, involving two older men and their respective family problems, is only a small part of the play. King Lear is about much, much more and undoubtedly reflects deeper concerns that Shakespeare had developed in his already considerable experience as a playwright.

By the time he wrote King Lear, this adventurous young man from Stratford had led a remarkable life, even for Elizabethan times, which we tend to think of as more exciting than our own. During the reign of Elizabeth I, England experienced a period of relative stability and, more important, prosperity. All the arts flourished, but the growth of drama was nothing short of phenomenal. At the zenith of Elizabeth’s power and influence, William Shakespeare came to London and wrote the 37 plays that have established him as the greatest playwright in the English language.

How did it all begin? What purpose drove him to produce this incredible body of work? Where did his inspiration come from? There are many ...

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King Arthur

When the questing knights returned to Camelot, Lancelot forgot the lesson he learned in the Grail chamber and began consorting again with Guinevere. One spring, while traveling with her attendant, Queen Guinevere was captured by a traitorous knight, Sir Meliagrance. Lancelot rescued her. Enemies of Lancelot told the King of Lancelot's love for Guinevere. A party championing the king's cause fought with Lancelot. All those he fought died except the king's illegitimate son, Mordred. Guinevere was sentenced to be burned, but Lancelot rescued her and they went of to the Castle Joyous Guard to be together. Arthur then besieged the castle, but the Pope intervened and commanded a truce. Lancelot and his followers went to France where he held lands. Arthur then invaded France, but while he was away, his son Mordred mounted an uprising with the aid of the dark sorceress Morganna. He seized the throne of Britain and tried to force Guinevere to become his queen. She escaped to the Tower of London. ...

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KING ARTHUR ` S LEGEND

KING ARTHUR ` S LEGEND
The earliestcontinuous Arthurian narrative is given in the Historia Regum Britanniae (c . 1139 ) by the English writer Geoffrey of Monmouth . Here Arthur is identified as the son of the British king Uther Pentragon and his counsellor Merlin is introduced . The Historia mentions the isle of Avalon , where Arthur went to recover from wounds after his last batlle , and it tells of Guinevere’s infidelity and the rebellion instigated by Arthur’s nepheww Mordred .

All later developments of the Arthurian legend are based on Geoffrey’s work . Thus , the first English Arthuurian story , in the poet Layamon’s Roman de Brut (1205 ) is an English version of Geoffrey’s Historia . Arthur os depictedas a warrion on an epic scale ; and the story of his magic sword Excalibur , which only he could extract from a rock , is incluted for the first time ...

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King Henry the VIII

In Cardinal Wolsey, the king, Henry the VIII, found an adviser who was essentially a transition minister, holding a middle place between an English statesman and a Catholic of the old order. Under Wolsey's influence, Henry made war with Louis of France in the pope's quarrel, entered the polemic lists with Luther and persecuted the English Protestants.

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Who was King Arthur

The figure of Arthur begins as a war hero, the praises of whom are sung in war poems by the Celts and the Welsh. Y Gododdin celebrates one particularly brave warrior, then says he "was no Arthur." The Triads are full of wonderful, courageous things Arthur did.
The most important early source for Arthur's deeds is Historia Brittonum, written by the monk Nennius in the 9th century. Nennius calls Arthur dux bellorum and tells us of 12 great battles Arthur fought. Although Nennius tells us the location of each battle, those locations are hard to come by these days. Scholars are still arguing over the locations. Even the agreed-on locations suggest that Arthur got around--literally--from Scotland to the lowlands of Wessex to Wales.
He fought everywhere. He won great victories. A strong tradition has him a Roman heldover who uses his knowledge of cavalry to rout the Saxons time and again, counting on their inexperience in fighting mounted men.
And even though the authors likely have exagerrated ...

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African American History

African American History or Black American History, a history of black people in the United States from their arrival in the Americas in the 15th century until the present day. In 1996, 33.9 million Americans, about one out of every eight people in the United States, were black. Although blacks from the West Indies and other areas have migrated to the United States in the 20th century, most African Americans were born in the United States, and this has been true since the Martin Luther King, Jr.

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Reforma religioasa

Reforma a fost urmarea directa a slabirii autoritatii papale. Dupa ce, intre secolele XI-XIII, papalitatea fusese in conflict cu imparatii germani, la inceputul secolului al XIV-lea, un nou conflict se nastea intre papa Bonifaciu al VIII-lea si regele Frantei, Filip cel Frumos. Biserica a intrat atunci intr-o perioada critica. Umilit, papa si-a parasit scaunul pontifical, cedand astfel locul candidatului adus de rege. Centrul catolicismului s-a mutat la Avignon, o data cu noul papa.

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