Monetary policy

The Future Monetary Policy

The Future Monetary Policy
The mid-1960s Henry Levin film Genghis Khan featured a rugged-looking Omar Sharif in the title role playing opposite Robert Morley, at his plump and pompous best as the Chin emperor Wang Wei-shao. One of the film’s early scenes shows the exquisitely attired Morley, calligraphy brush in hand, elegantly composing a poem. With an ethereal self-assurance born of unquestioning confidence in the divinely ordained course of worldly affairs, Morley explains that the poem’s purpose is to express his displeasure at the Mongol barbarians who have lately been creating a disturbance on the Chin empire’s western frontier, and, by so doing, cause them to desist.

Nivel: Facultate
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Materia: Economie

Instrumente de politica monetara si eficienta

Obiectivele generale ale politicii monetare
Obiectivele generale ale politicii monetare care alcatuiesc patratul magic sunt urmatoarele:
• stabilitatea preturilor
Stapanirea inflatiei este un deziderent major, deoarece inflatia:
• impiedica alocarea eficienta a fondurilor de investitii intrucat taxarea profitului distorsioneaza nivelulu real alprofitului facand-l inapt pentru dimensionarea corecta a productivitatii reale a capitalului pe ramuri;
• determina redistribuirea venitului si a avutiei in defavoarea creditorilor si a tuturor intreprinzatorilor care incaseaza profituri;
• redistribuie veniturile chiar si in cadrul fiecarei clase de venituri intre familiile care au solicitat imprumuturi defavorizate;
• produce un climat social economic nesigur si incert in care familiile nu mai pot sa discearna daca e bines au rau sa cheltuiasca sau sa fac economii;
• mareste veniturile guvernului fata de cheltuieli, deoarece;
a) prin sistemul de taxe si impozite este ...

Alte referate despre: instrumente de politica monetara, instrumentele de politica monetara, utilizarea instrumentelor de politica monetara

Inflation targeting

Inflation targeting
Inflation targeting is a monetary policy strategy that encompasses five main elements: 1) the public announcement of medium-term numerical targets for inflation; 2) an institutional commitment to price stability as the primary goal of monetary policy, to which other goals are subordinated;

Alte referate despre: advantages of inflation targeting, inflation targeting advantages, advantage of inflation targeting

The transmission mechanism of monetary policy

Changes in the official rate also affect the market value of securities, such as bonds and equities. The price of bonds is inversely related to the long-term interest rate, so a rise in long-term interest rates lowers bond prices, and vice versa for a fall in long rates. If other things are equal (especially inflation expectations), higher interest rates also lower other securities prices, such as equities. This is because expected future returns are discounted by a larger factor, so the present value of any given future income stream falls. Other things may not be equal—for example, policy changes may have indirect effects on expectations or confidence—but these are considered separately below. The effect on prices of physical assets, such as housing, is discussed later.

Alte referate despre: transmission mechanism of monetary policy, bank of england the transmission mechanism of monetary policy, trasmission mechanism of monetary policy

The First Year of the Eurosystem

The First Year of the Eurosystem
Third, communication is very explicit and to the point; policy decisions are consistently motivated with reference to published in/ation and output(-gap) forecasts. Indeed, in/ation targeting has introduced unprecedented transparency and accountability in monetary policy. Three central banks©the.Reserve Bank of New Zealand, the Bank of England, and Sweden™s Sveriges Riksbank© stand out as particularly consistent and transparent in their implementation of in/ation targeting.

Alte referate despre: the first year of the eurosystem, my first camera, britain after first world war

Adoption of euro by Romania

Benefits of the adoption of euro are related to the elimination of transaction costs associated with exchange and eliminating the risk caused by uncertainty about the future evolution of exchange rates.

Alte referate despre: referate adoption of euro by romania, romania euro adoption, advantages and disadvantages of euro adoption by romania

Criza resurselor

Astazi, aceasta cifra a crescut la 35 de procente, gratie utilajelor folosite. Chiar daca s-au facut progrese evidente in ceea ce priveste eficienta tehnologiei, un fapt ramine totusi clar: in prezent, doua treimi din petrolul aflat in zacamintele cunoscute ramine neexploatat. Potrivit "Foreign Policy", daca aparatura de extractie va continua sa se perfectioneze, aceasta cantitate va putea fi valorificata pe viitor. Ceea ce va oferi omenirii un surplus de titei deloc neglijabil.

Alte referate despre: criza resurselor naturale, criza resurselor, solutii legate de criza resurselor

Moneda Euro

Moneda Euro a intrat deja in circulatie la data de 1 ianuarie 2002. Ea se prezinta sub forma de bancnote de 500, 200, 100, 50, 20, 10 si 5 EURO si sunt identice in toate cele 12 state. Monedele sunt de 1 si 2 euro, 50, 20, 10, 5, 2 si 1 cent. Monedele sunt emise de fiecare stat si au fata identica, iar pe verso sunt individualizate cu motive specifice fiecarui stat.

Care va fi efectul asupra statelor din Europa de Est? Aceste state isi pastreaza inca monedele nationale. Monedele lor nationale nu au orata de schimb fixa fata de moneda unica. Putem afirma ca trecerea la moneda unica aduce beneficii nu numai intreprinzatorilor, marilor companii, prestatorilor de servicii, cat si consumatorilor. Ele se refera in principal la:

Alte referate despre: moneda euro, moneda euro referat, referat moneda euro

Finate publice - concept, continut, functii

Lucrarea finate publice - concept, continut, functii a fost concepută ca un îndrumar pentru studenţii de la învăţământul cu frecvenţă redusă şi la distanţă şi elaborată într-o aşa manieră, încât să asigure o tratare sistemică a domeniului abordat, pe baza unei informări teoretice şi practice în contextul realităţii dinamice social-economice din ţara noastră, pe fondul multiplelor schimbări legislative din perioada 2003-2004 în domeniul practic al finanţelor publice.Finate publice - concept, continut, functii

Alte referate despre: finante publice concept continut functii, rolul finatelor publice in indeplinirea functiilor statului, marketing public-concept misiuni functii


The Supreme Court is Romania’s highest judicial authority. Its members are appointed by the president at the proposal of the Superior Council of Magistrates. In each of Romania’s 40 counties and in the special district of Bucharest there is a county court and several lower courts, or courts of first instance. The country also has 15 circuits of appellate courts, in which appeals against sentences passed by local courts are heard; there is a right of appeal from the appellate courts to the Supreme Court. Romania has a Constitutional Court, charged with ensuring a balance of power among the organs of government. The procurator-general is the highest judicial official in Romania, and is responsible to the National Assembly, which appoints him or her for a four-year term. The death penalty was abolished in December 1989 and is forbidden by the 1991 constitution.
D Political Parties
Between 1948 and 1989 the only political organization in Romania was the Communist Party. Led by Nicolae ...

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Political Islam in Saudi Arabia

Studiu de caz pe Arabia Political Islam is a concept that defines the way in which Islamic religion is influencing politics in Islamic states. In this study I aim to establish to what extent the Islamic-thinking affects politics and especially Saudi Arabia�s internal and foreign policy. In order to do that, we need to know how powerful the Islamic ideology is in this particular country. The population of Saudi Arabia is 90% Muslim Arab of the Wahhabi sect (a branch of Sunni Islam), although there is a small percentage of Shiites, mainly in the Northeast. Islam is the only officially recognized religion, and other faiths are not publicly tolerated.udiata despre cum influenteaza religia islamica politica

Alte referate despre: rolul islamului in etnogeneza arabilor, islamul si expansiunea araba, referate ro razboi religios politic islam

Management - art and science

Reducing incidental exposure will increase the predictability of
results. From an analyst's perspective, reduced exposure is likely to
enhance value for the company, which will be reflected in its share
price. In the absence of a market view or a trend pattern developing,
management should hedge against incidental exposure.

Alte referate despre: management art or science, management-art of science, art and science

WWF, institutii europene pentru protectia mediului

WWF considera ca CAP ar trebui sa contribuie la tratatele UE care au ca obiectiv integrarea si dezvoltarea mediului natural. Obiectivul WWF este schimbarea radicala a CAP si de asemenea ca UE sa promoveze la nivel international relatiile comerciale cu tari in curs de dezvoltare.

Alte referate despre: wwf institutii europene pentru protectia mediului, institutii europene pentru protectia mediului, institutii europene de protectia mediului

World War !

CAUSES OF THE WAR  The underlying causes of World War I were the spirit of intense nationalism that permeated Europe throughout the 19th and into the 20th century, the political and economic rivalry among the nations, and the establishment and maintenance in Europe after 1871 of large armaments and of two hostile military alliances.
A Nationalism  The French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars had spread throughout most of Europe the idea of political democracy, with the resulting idea that people of the same ethnic origin, language, and political ideals had the right to independent states. The principle of national self-determination, however, was largely ignored by the dynastic and reactionary forces that dominated in the settlement of European affairs at the Congress of Vienna in 1815. Several peoples who desired national autonomy were made subject to local dynasts or to other nations. Notable examples were the German people, whom the Congress of Vienna left divided into numerous ...

Alte referate despre: britain after world war 1, britain after world war one, post world war 1 britain

Civilizatia Industriala si Mediul Ambiant

In lucrarile sale Eco-economia, Planul B2.0 pentru salvarea unei planete sub presiune si a unei civilizatii in impas, si planul 3.0 – Mobilizare generala pentru salvarea civilizatiei, Laster Brown a relevat importanta integrarii si asumarii de catre fiecare stat, a unei strategii privind dezvoltarea durabila, ale carei componente esentiale sunt: stabilizare populatiei, reducerea dependentei de petrol, dezvoltarea resurselor de enrgii regenerabile, conservarea solului, protejarea sistemelor biologice ale Pamantului reciclarea materialelor.

Planul B 3.0 presupune o serie de solutii inspirate de conceptual “dezvoltarii durabile” pentru depasirea crizei iminete care ar intervene in ipoteza in care tendintele actuale iminete cxare ar intervene in ipoteza in care tendintele actuale se vor mentine respective (Planul A) ; stabilizarea climei, a populatiei eradicarea saraciei si refacerea ecosistmelor Pamantului.

In viziunea lui Lester Brown omul detine tehnologiile ...

Alte referate despre: civilizatia industriala si mediul ambiant, progresul tehnico-industrial si mediul ambiant, fizica progresul tehnico-industrial si mediul ambiant

Politica monetara a BNR in perspectiva reducerii inflatiei

In etapa 2003-2004, se va putea avea in vedere, insa, si o alta optiune de regim de curs de schimb si implicit de strategie de politica monetara, daca nu se va reusi indeplinirea tuturor preconditiilor impuse de trecerea la tintirea directa a inflatiei. Alternativa ar fi adoptarea unui regim de curs de schimb mai predictibil, date fiind perspectivele favorabile ale relaxarii constrangerii externe, inclusiv prin castigurile de productivitate pe care le vor genera politicile structurale; acesta va potenta stabilitatea ratei de schimb, contribuind si la consolidarea procesului dezinflatiei.

Alte referate despre: politica monetara a bnr din perspectiva integrarii in zona euro, politica monetara a bnr in reducerea inflatiei, politica monetara a bnr
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