Scotland, one of the four national units that make up the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The other units are England, Northern Ireland, and Wales. Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland, and Glasgow is its largest city
The English are in general a reserved people, who do not approve of loud or highly demonstrative behaviour (except in very informal gatherings). Personal space is respected, and people feel uncomfortable when others stand too close to them during conversation. Touching is generally avoided. Manners are important, although standards are not as high among young people, who account for nearly one-fifth of the population.
Henry the VIII rejected Rome and put the church in England under his personal control. His church was to become more protestant, particularly under Elisabeth I. Ireland’s population remained mainly Roman Catholic.
Nonetheless, the English sacked the city no less than seven times.Edinburgh really began to grow in the 11th century, when markets developed at the foot of the fortress, and from 1124, when David I held court at the castle and founded the abbey at Holyrood.The first effective town wall was constructed around 1450 and circled the Old Town and the area around Grassmarket.
England (in Latin, Anglia), country and constituent part of the island of Great Britain, comprising, with the principality of Wales, the principal division of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. England occupies all of the island east of Wales and south of Scotland, another country and division of the United Kingdom. United as an independent monarchy in the 10th century, England in time achieved political control over the rest of the island, all the British Isles, and vast sections of the world, becoming the nucleus of one of the largest empires in history. The capital, largest city, and chief port of England is London, with a population of 6,967,500 (1994 estimate). It is also the capital of the United Kingdom, and the site of the headquarters of the Commonwealth of Nations.
England is very roughly triangular in shape, with its apex at the mouth of the River Tweed on the north-eastern border with Scotland. The eastern side, bounded by the North Sea, extends ...
An area of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, defined as extending from the coast about 70 miles inland, is referred to as the Outer Coastal Plain. This area is quite flat. Many rivers can be found in the Outer Coastal Plain with swamps near the coast that extend inland along the rivers. An area called the Inner Coastal Plain consists of rolling hills. This is where South Carolina's most fertile soils are found.
Scotland is one of the four countries which form The United Kingdom – England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. People from England are ‘English’, people from Wales are ‘Welsh’, people from Northern Ireland are ‘Northern Irish’, and those who live in Scotland are ‘Scottish’. But all the people who live in the United Kingdom are called “British”.
Roman rule of England and Wales lasted from AD 43 to around AD 409.
Over the next 600 years there were invasions and settlements by
peoples from northern Europe. The last successful invasion was by the
Normans in 1066. In 1172 the King of England made himself Lord of
Ireland. The uniting of England with Wales and with Scotland led on to
the union of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801. In 1921 Ireland was
partitioned, Northern Ireland remains within Britain.
The British Isles consists of two islands: Great Britain and Ireland. Great Britain is formed of three formely separate countries: Scotland, England and Wales. Ireland consists of Northern Ireland (the northern part that belongs to the kingdom) and The Republic of Ireland (that is a free country).
The figure of Arthur begins as a war hero, the praises of whom are sung in war poems by the Celts and the Welsh. Y Gododdin celebrates one particularly brave warrior, then says he "was no Arthur." The Triads are full of wonderful, courageous things Arthur did. The most important early source for Arthur's deeds is Historia Brittonum, written by the monk Nennius in the 9th century. Nennius calls Arthur dux bellorum and tells us of 12 great battles Arthur fought. Although Nennius tells us the location of each battle, those locations are hard to come by these days. Scholars are still arguing over the locations. Even the agreed-on locations suggest that Arthur got around--literally--from Scotland to the lowlands of Wessex to Wales.
England (Latin Anglia), political division of the island of Great Britain, the principal division of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. England occupies all of the island east of Wales and south of Scotland, other divisions of the island of Great Britain.
Established as an independent monarchy many centuries ago, England in time achieved political control over the rest of the island, all the British Isles, and vast sections of the world, becoming the nucleus of one of the greatest empires in history. The capital, largest city, and chief port of England is London, with a population in 1996 of 7 million. It is also the capital of the United Kingdom and the site of the headquarters of the Commonwealth of Nations.
The most important buildings in England are: Tower Bridge, The Tower of London, Oxford University, Big Ben, Buckingham House.Tower Bridge is one of the world’s most famous bridges. 150,000 vehicles cross it every day. Over 900 times a year the ...
Numerous Chinese and Indian restaurants and pizza houses provide take-away services, and many pubs (public houses) serve anything from snacks to full meals as well as alcoholic beverages. Traditional English dishes include roast beef and Yorkshire pudding (a baked batter) and steak-and-kidney pie.
In Cardinal Wolsey, the king, Henry the VIII, found an adviser who was essentially a transition minister, holding a middle place between an English statesman and a Catholic of the old order. Under Wolsey's influence, Henry made war with Louis of France in the pope's quarrel, entered the polemic lists with Luther and persecuted the English Protestants.
Fish's famous pamphlet shows the spirit that was seething. He spoke of what he had seen and knew. The monks, he tells the king, 'be they that have made a hundred thousand idle, dissolute women in your realm.' But Wolsey could interfere with neither bishops nor monks without a special dispensation from the pope. A new trouble arose for the nation in the desire of Henry to divorce Catherine of Aragon, who had been his deceased brother's wife, was six years older than himself and was an obstacle to the establishment of the kingdom. Her sons were dead, and she was beyond the period when more children could be expected. Though descent in the ...
CAUSES OF THE WAR The underlying causes of World War I were the spirit of intense nationalism that permeated Europe throughout the 19th and into the 20th century, the political and economic rivalry among the nations, and the establishment and maintenance in Europe after 1871 of large armaments and of two hostile military alliances.
A Nationalism The French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars had spread throughout most of Europe the idea of political democracy, with the resulting idea that people of the same ethnic origin, language, and political ideals had the right to independent states. The principle of national self-determination, however, was largely ignored by the dynastic and reactionary forces that dominated in the settlement of European affairs at the Congress of Vienna in 1815. Several peoples who desired national autonomy were made subject to local dynasts or to other nations. Notable examples were the German people, whom the Congress of Vienna left divided into numerous ...
The 26th of December, Boxing Day, is an extra holiday after Christmas Day. New Year's is less popular in Britain than Christmas. But in Scotland, Hogmanday is the biggest festival of the year. Besides public holidays there are some special festivals in Great Britain.
Britain is full of culture and traditions which have been around for hundreds of years. British customs and traditions are famous all over the world. When people think of Britain they often think of people drinking tea, eating fish and chips and wearing bowler hats, but there is more to Britain than just those things. They have English and British traditions of sport, music, food and many royal occasions. There are also songs, sayings and superstitions.
From Sir Roger the elephant to Rembrandt's A Man in Armour, and 1950s trams to medieval tapestries, we've got something for everyone. Admission to our sites is free, so you can drop in and meet a friend for coffee, or take the family and make a day of it. There's something in Glasgow Museums for everyone, and children are particularly welcome.
The Industrial Revolution began in the United Kingdom, which in the 19th century became the world's preeminent industrial and trading nation. In the 20th century, however, competition from more recently industrialized countries as well as the loss of its colonies (which had provided raw materials for Britain's industries and markets for their finished products) brought an economic decline. In the 1960s and 1970s severe labor disputes, unprecedented inflation, and declining exports contributed to a series of economic crises. During the Industrial Revolution the country became rapidly urbanized, and today more than 70% of the total population is concentrated in cities occupying 10% of the total land area.
To protect the remaining countryside, national planning legislation has established ten national parks in the most scenic areas, including Dartmoor, the Lake District, the Pennines, the Snowdonia, the Pembrokeshire coast, North York Moors, Yorkshire Dales, Northumbria, ...
Alexander Graham Bell was born on March 3, 1847 in Edinburgh, Scotland. Bell is best known for his invention of the telephone. Many inventors had been working on the idea of sending human speech by wire, but Bell was the first to succeed.
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