Defining and Developing Democracy

Trimis la data: 2010-05-12 Materia: Engleza Nivel: Facultate Pagini: 15 Nota: / 10 Downloads: 16
Autor: Ioana Banica Dimensiune: 28kb Voturi: Tipul fisierelor: doc Acorda si tu o nota acestui seminar: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
vezi mai multe detalii vezi mai putine detalii
Raporteaza o eroare
Liberal democracy provides, by definition, comparatively good pro- tection for human rights However, there is no reason that electoral democracy and liberty must go together. Historically, liberty--secured through constitutional, limited government and a rule of law--came about before democracy both in England and, in varying degrees, in oth er European states. And today, as I demonstrate in chapter 2, there are many illiberal democracies, with human rights abuses and civil strife Thesetwo facts have rekindled intellectual interest in liberal autocracy as a better, safer, more stable form of government for many transitional societies.
Referate similare: Nu exista seminarii similare

Since April of 1974, when the Portuguese military overthrew the Salazar/ Caetano dictatorship, the number of democracies in the world has mul tiplied dramatically. Before the start of this global trend, there were forty democracies.

The number increased moderately through the late 1970s and early 1980s as several states experienced transitions from authoritarian rule (predominantly military) to democratic rule. In the mid 1980s, the pace of global democratic expansion accelerated markedly. By the end of 1995, there were as many as 117 democracies or as few as 76, depending on howpne counts.

Deciding how to count is crucial to some principal tasks of this book:
refining what we mean by.the term democracy; analyzing the degree of glob al democratic progress since 1974; considering whether democracy will continue to expand in the world; and determining what factors will shape the viability of the many new democracies that have come into being.

In a seminal formulation, Samuel Huntington termed this post-1974 period the "third wave" of global democratic expansion and has shown the central importance to it of regional and international demonstration ef fects.

The democratizing trend began in Southern Europe in the mid l970s, spread to the military regimes of South America in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and reached East, Southeast, and South Asia by the mid to late 1980s.

The end of the 1980s saw a surge of transitions from com munist authoritarian rule in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union and a trend toward democracy in Central America as well. Final1y the democratic trend spread to Africa in 1990, beginning in February of that year with the sovereign National Conference in Benin and the release of Nelson Mandela and the unbanning of the African National Congress in South Africa.

By 1998 there were between nine and seventeen democra cies on the continent--again, depending on how one counts. Huntington defines a "wave of democratization" simply as "a group of [ transitions. . . that occur within a specified period of time and that significantly outnumber transitions in the opposite direction during that period."

He identifies two previous waves of democratiza tion (along, slow wave from 1828 to 1926 and a second, post--World War II wave, from 1943 to 1964). Each of the first two waves ended with a re verse wave of democratic breakdowns (1922--42, 1961--75), in which some but not all of the new (or reestablished) democracies collapsed. Each reverse wave significantly diminished the number of democracies in the world but left more democracies in place than had existed prior to the start of the democratic wave.

Will the new century bring a third reverse wave, challenging once again democratic ideas, models, and institutions?The normative perspective underlying this book is that democrati zation is generally a good thing and that democracy is the 'best form of government. However, democracy is not an unmitigated blessing. Dat ing back to Aristotle (and to Plato, who had even less sympathy for democracy), the key shapers of democratic political thought have held that the best realizable form of government is mixed, or constitutional, government, in which freedom is constrained by the rule of law and pop ular sovereignty is tempered by state institutions that produce order and stability.

Nota explicativa
Referatele si lucrarile oferite de Referate.ro au scop educativ si orientativ pentru cercetare academica.

Iti recomandam ca referatele pe care le downloadezi de pe site sa le utilizezi doar ca sursa de inspiratie sau ca resurse educationale pentru conceperea unui referat nou, propriu si original.

Referat.ro te invata cum sa faci o lucrare de nota 10!
Linkuri utile
Programeaza-te online la salonul favorit Descarca gratuit aplicatiile pentru iOS si Android Filmulete haioase Filme, poante si cele mai tari faze Jocuri Cele mai tari jocuri de pe net Referate scoala Resurse, lucrari, referate materiale pentru lucrari de nota 10
Toate imaginile, textele sau alte materiale prezentate pe site sunt proprietatea referat.ro fiind interzisa reproducerea integrala sau partiala a continutului acestui site pe alte siteuri sau in orice alta forma fara acordul scris al referat.ro. Va rugam sa consultati Termenii si conditiile de utilizare a site-ului. Informati-va despre Politica de confidentialitate. Daca aveti intrebari sau sugestii care pot ajuta la dezvoltarea site-ului va rugam sa ne scrieti la adresa webmaster@referat.ro.
Confidentialitatea ta este importanta pentru noi

Referat.ro utilizeaza fisiere de tip cookie pentru a personaliza si imbunatati experienta ta pe Website-ul nostru. Te informam ca ne-am actualizat politica de confidentialitate pentru a integra cele mai recente modificari privind protectia persoanelor fizice in ceea ce priveste prelucrarea datelor cu caracter personal. Inainte de a continua navigarea pe Website-ul nostru te rugam sa aloci timpul necesar pentru a citi si intelege continutul Politicii de Cookie. Prin continuarea navigarii pe Website-ul nostru confirmi acceptarea utilizarii fisierelor de tip cookie conform Politicii de Cookie. Nu uita totusi ca poti modifica in orice moment setarile acestor fisiere cookie urmarind instructiunile din Politica de Cookie.


Politica de Cookie
Am inteles