Temeni la limba si literatrura engleza
2.Imagery. This term is one of the most common in modern criticism, and one of the most ambigous. Its applications range all the way from the "mental pictures" wich, it is claimed, are experienced by the reader of a poem, to the totality of the elements which make up a poem. An example of this latter usage is C. Day Lewis's statement, in his Poetic Image (1948), pp. 17-18, that an image " is a picture made out of worlds", and that " a poem may itself be an image composed from a multipicity of images". Three uses of the world, however, are especially frequent:
"Imagery"( that is, "images" taken collectively) is used to signify all the objects and qualities of sense perception referred to in a poem or other work of literature, whether by literal description, by allusion, or in the analogues( the vehicles) used in its similes and metaphors. In Wordsworth's " She Dwelt amoung the Undrodden Ways", the imagery in this broad sense includes the literal objects the poem refers to ("ways", "maid", "grave"), as well as the "violet" and "stone" of the metaphor and "star" and"sky" of the simile in the second stanza.
The term "image" should not be taken to imply a visual reproduction of the object referred to: some readers of the passage experience visual images and some do not; and among those who do, the explicitness and detail of the mind pictures vary greatly. Also, imagery includes auditory, tactile(touch), olfactory (smell), gustatory( taste), or kinesthetic ( sensations of movement), as well as visual qualities. In his In Memoriam ,number 101, for example, Tennyson's references are to qualities of smell and hearing, as well as sight, in the lines
Unloved, that beech will gather brown
And many a rose-carnation feed
With summer spice the humming air...
Imagery is used, more narrowly, to signify only description of visible objects and scenes, especially if the description is vivid and particularized, as in Coleridge's " Ancient Mariner" :
The rock shone bright, the kirk no less,
That stands above the rock:
The moonlight steeped in silentness
The steady weathercock.
Most commonly, imagery is used to signify figurative language, especially the vehicles of metaphors and similes. Recent criticism, and especially the new criticism, has gone far beyond older criticism in stressing imagery, in this sense, as the essential component in poetry, and as a major clue to poetic meaning, structure, and effect.Caroline Spurgeon, in her very influential book, "Sheakespeare's Imagery and What I Tells Us"(1935), made statistical counts of the subjectsof this type of imagery in Shakspeare, and used the results as clues to Shakspeare's personal experience, interests, and temperament.
She also pointed out the frequent occurrence in Shakspeare's plays of "image-clusters" ( recurrent grouping of metaphors and similes), and presented evidence that a number of the individual plays have characteristic image motifs( for example, animal imagery in King Lear, and the figures of disease, corruption, and death in Hamlet); these elements she viewed as establishing the overall tonality of a play. Many critics have joined Miss Spurgeon in the search for images, image patterns, and "thematic imagery" in works of literature.
By some critics the implicit interaction of the imagery, rather than the explicit statements, or the overt speeches and actions of the characters, is held to constitute the working out of the primary subject, or "theme", of many plays, poems, and novels. See, for example, the critical writings of G Wilson Knight, Cleanth Brooks on Macbeth in "The Well-Wrought Urn"(1947), Chap. 2, and Robert B. Heilman, "This Great State: Image and Structure in " King Lear"(1948)
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