UK s policies towards the European Union

Trimisa la data: 2010-06-25 Materia: Stiinte Politice Pagini: 86 Comentarii: 0 (comenteaza) Autor: andrew23
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Lucrare de licenta despre UK s policies towards the European Union
Attempts at European integration have a long history; but most of them involved a great deal of efforts and finally took the form of conquest. While the outbreak of the Second World War illustrated the force of nationalism in Europe, the years after it provided conditions for moves towards a consensual approach to European unity.

Having been the leading European nation at the end of the Second World War, Britain distrusted the supranational aspirations of the nascent European Community in the 1950s and 1960s. As a result it chose not to participate in the Community’s development and has often been peripheral since its membership in 1973.

While European politics have been transformed during the last fifty years by economic and political integration within the European Union (EU), Britain was marginal to some key developments (Economic and Monetary Union – EMU, and the Euro being the latest).

Often portrayed as an ‘awkward partner’ in relation to European affairs, Britain is the European state which stood aside from the first steps towards integration and spent a good part of the time since accession in 1973 agonizing about the EU’s form, scope and direction.

EU membership has had important effects on British politics, economy and society. Responsibility for important policy sectors has been transferred to common decision – making structures in collaboration with other member states and EU institutions. The decisions taken within these EU institutions can over–ride national law. Moreover, there are other aspects of political activity which have been refocused. Government ministers meet frequently with colleagues from other member states in EU decision–making forums.
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Lucrare de licenta despre UK s policies towards the European Union

Lucrare de licenta despre UK s policies towards the European Union
Contents

Introduction.................................2

I. The beginnings of an idea: The European Union....................5
1. What is the European Union?......................................5
2. Theories of European integration.................................6
2.1 The functionalist theory.................6
2.2 The federalist theory....................6
2.3. The federalist – functionalist strategy.......................7
2.4 Supranationalism vs. the Sovereign state.......................8

II. Integrating Europe and British approach to the process.........12
1. First steps..............................12
1.1 The Council of Europe...................12
1.2 The Cold War............................13
1.3 The Marchall Plan and the OEEC..........14
1.4 The Schuman Plan for Coal and Steel...........................16
1.5 The European Defence Community..........17
2. Spectacular steps forward: The Messina negotiations............20

III. British change of heart: Membership of the EC................23
1.De Gaulle vs. British appliance for membership of the EC........23
1.1EEC’s early years .......................23
1.2Charles de Gaulle and the 1963 and 1965 crisis.................24
1.3Reasons for British change of heart............................26
1.4The Wilson government and the Second British application.......26
2.After de Gaulle: the relaunching of European integration and British membership.................................30
2.1The Hague Summit: EMU and EPC...........30
2.2Britain in the EU: The Government of Edward Heath..............32
2.3The Dark Decade of 1974 – 1984..........36
2.4The Wilson and Callaghan governments..........................38

IV. The European Union into the 1980: enlargement and relaunch........44
1. The EU into the 1980s and beyond...................................44
1.1 The Single European Act..............44
1.2 Maastricht...........................49
1.3 The Treaty of Amsterdam..............50
2. Britain into the 1980s and beyond...........................52
2.1 The Thatcher Governments: 1979-1990........................52
2.2 The Major Governments.................57
2.3 The Blair Government after 1995............................59

V. The consequences of EU membership.......62
1. The effects of EU membership............62
1.1 Constitutional effects.................63
1.2 Economic effects.......................65
1.3 Effects on environmental policy........68
1.4 Effects on social policies.............68
2. Benefits to Britain.....................69
2.1 International benefits..................69
2.2 Business benefits.......................70
2.3 Consumers...............................70
2.4 Employees...............................71
3. Public attitudes towards European integration and MediaRepresentation...................72
3.1 Media representation of Europe..........72
3.2 Public attitudes..................73

Conclusions...........................75
Outline Chronology....................77
List of abbreviations.................79
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