Analiza BRD - bachelor paper
The paper is divided into 5 chapters, each one of them having several subchapters. The first chapter provides general information about banks; how and why did they appear, several classification criteria and their main functions. An organizational structure of a bank is also provided along with a presentation of a bank's management
Institutions that issue money are institutions whose main activity is the provision of financial and un-financial services that have a connection with the activity. Unlike other institutions, these ones cannot attract deposits and other reimbursable funds and they cannot grant credits. Depending on their ownership, banks can be classified into private banks, state banks and joint banks. The private banks' capital belongs to a person or a group of persons; they were the first banks to work as bankers and moneylenders.
Their main function is to act as stock companies, whose capital is divided in a large number of stocks. Influence over the bank's management is manifested in the shareholder meeting plan, and it depends on the own stocks' number and value. The profit distribution is made depending on the number of stocks that each shareholder owns. Decisions regarding the election of administrators and auditors, the balance's approval or disapproval, fixing the dividends and the size of the capital are taken by the General Meeting of Shareholders.
The state banks 'capital is owned by the state, in which they are located. These types of banks function as specialized banks.
Joint banks function as stock companies, in which the state is one of the shareholders. The characteristics of this type of banks depend on the weight of the shares owned by the state. These banks are established by the capital contribution of several partners from different countries. These banks obey the legislation of the country, where their headquarters is located.
The banks' incomes are divided between partners, depending on each one's contribution in establishing the bank's capital and its activity is supervised by the Central Bank of the country, where it has its headquarters. Depending on their national membership, banks can be classified into domestic banks and multinational banks. In the case of domestic banks, their capital belongs to individuals and juridical persons, residing in the state where the bank develops its activity. These banks are also the components of the national banking system, functioning under the supervision of the respective state's Central Bank.
In the category of multinational banks, there are the International Financial and Monetary Organisms. Both of them have some elements in common. Both their capitals are built by subscribing Central Banks from member states, and their management is ensured by the governors of member states. They also grant loans and provide assistance to member states and finally, they supervise the functioning financial-banking international markets.
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