Benito Mussolini

Trimis la data: 2015-09-29
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BENITO MUSSOLINI (1883-1945), Fascist dictator of Italy from 1922 to 1943. He centralized all power in himself as the leader "Il duce" of the Fascist party and attempted to create an Italian empire, ultimately in alliance with Hitler's Germany. The defeat of Italian arms in World War II brought an end to his imperial dream and led to his downfall.
BENITO MUSSOLINI Born in Predappio, near Forli, in Romagna, Northwestern Italy on July 29,1883. His father, Alessandro, was a blacksmith, and his mother, Rosa, was a schoolteacher. Like his father, Benito became a fervent socialist.
Unable to find a permanent job there and arrested for vagrancy, he was expelled and returned to Italy to do his military service and then taught school again and became a local socialist leader. After further trouble with the police, he joined the staff of a newspaper in the Austrian town of Trento in 1908 and worked for a socialist newspaper. At this time he wrote a novel, subsequently translated into English as The Cardinal's Mistress.

SOCIALIST AFFILIATIONS In 1912, Mussolini became editor of the Italian Socialist Party's official newspaper. In this paper, he supported Italian involvement in World War I (1914-1918). Many socialists criticized this position. He then resigned as editor and, in November 1914, founded his own newspaper, Il Popolo d'Italia, in which he urged Italy to enter the war against Germany and Austria-Hungary. When World War I broke out in 1914, Mussolini agreed with the other Socialists that Italy should not join it. Only a class war was acceptable to him, and he threatened to lead a revolution if the government

decided to fight. But several months later he unexpectedly changed his position on the war, leaving the Socialist party and his editorial chair. Later that month, the Socialist Party expelled Mussolini. Italy entered the war in 1915, and Mussolini served in the army until he was wounded in 1917.FASCIST DICTATOR In 1919, Mussolini founded the Fasci di Combattimento(Combat Groups). This movement appealed to war veterans with a program that supported government ownership of national resources and that put the interests of Italy above all others.

After failing in the 1919 elections, Mussolini at last entered parliament in 1921 as a right-wing member. In 1921, he transformed the Fasci into the National Fascist Party, adopting a more conservative program to gain the support of property-owning Italians. When the liberal governments of Giovanni Giolitti, Ivanoe Bonomi, and Luigi Facta failed to stop the spread of anarchy the Black Shirts, armed squads who supported Mussolini.
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