Characteristics of ethnic, religious and national conflicts in the post cold-war era
As social beings, people are naturally linked with certain groups, objects, beliefs, and ideologies. This affiliation sometimes occurs on a conscious basis, in conjunction with the individual's personal choices, likes, and dislikes. It may also happen semi-consciously, so to speak, out of socialization and learning processes that are beyond the pure control of the person. In any case, all adults are supporters of certain "isms", such as liberalism, Marxism, nationalism, Hinduism, and so forth.
While natural, human affiliation in the form "ism" may be pathological at times. One of the most visible forms of "ism" pathology in today's world appears to be religious fundamentalism, as the phenomenon has frequently become related to conflict and violence. In his famous "Clash of civilizations" thesis, Samuel P. Huntington (1993, 1997) claimed that it is now culture rather than ideology that divides the world and that religion fuels the conflict in a special way by inspiring intolerant and irreconcilable images of identity and commitment among competing civilizations. Although we have not yet witnessed a major clash between competing civilizations resulting from religious differences, religious fundamentalism, nonetheless, has become a serious source of national and international conflicts in the post-Cold War era. Further, whether they are Muslim, Christian, Jewish, or other, many religious people throughout the world became involved in violence, brutal tactics, and even terrorism. In this regard, Islamic fundamentalism has especially become "popular", so to speak, after the September 11 attacks on the US and occasional bombings of major Western countries, or supporters of them, by radical Muslim groups, although religiously-driven violence is not limited to one particular religion.
1. ETHNIC CONFLICTS
1.1 Definition and characteristics of ethnicity
1.2 Ethnic Reconciliation
1.3 Ethnic Separation
1.4 Ethnic War
2. RELIGIOUS CONFLICTS
2.1 General overview
2.2 Religion and Latent Conflict
2.3 Religion and Conflict Escalation
3. CURRENT CONFLICTS AND WARS
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