Tower bridge history
How a design was chosen
The big problem for the Corporation of London was how to build a bridge downstream from London Bridge without disrupting river traffic activities. To get as many ideas as possible, the "Special Bridge or Subway Committee" was formed in 1876, and opened the design of the new crossing to public competition.
Over 50 designs were put forward for consideration, some of which you can see when you visit the Tower Bridge Exhibition. However, it wasn't until October 1884 that Horace Jones, the City Architect, in collaboration with John Wolfe Barry, offered the chosen design for Tower Bridge as a solution.
The building of the bridge
It took 8 years, 5 major contractors and the relentless labour of 432 construction workers to build Tower Bridge. Two massive piers had to be sunk into the river bed to support the construction, over 11,000 tons of steel provided the framework for the Towers and Walkways. This was then clad in Cornish granite and Portland stone, both ...
The Grand Canyon is of relatively recent origin; apparently the river began its work of erosion about six million years ago. Coupled with the downward cutting of the river has been a general rising or upwarping of the Colorado Plateau, which has added its effect to the action of the river.
Back in America ,fund raising for the pedestal was going particularity slowly ,so Joseph Pulitzer (noted for the Pulitzer Prize ) opened up the editorial pages of his newpaper ,"The World "to support the fund raising effort. Pulitzer used his newpaper to criticize both rich had failed to finance the pedestal construction and middle class who content to rely upon wealthy to provide the funds .Pulitzer`s campaign of harsh criticism was successful .
Even though they could be built to run up to 34 mph, passengers' eardrums could rupture at that speed, so the elevators will probably run at around 15 mph.Some cars will hold about 160 people and express elevators will stop at "sky lobbies" located every 30 floors where passengers can change to local service.Other cars may even be able to move horizontally. Innovations like these may be necessary to move about 100,000 people a day.
The twin towers of the World Trade Center were more than just buildings. They were proof of New York's belief in itself. Built at a time when New York's future seemed uncertain the towers restored confidence and helped bring the decline of lower Manhattan to a stop, quickly becoming symbols of New York. It was conceived in the early 1960s by the Downtown-Lower Manhattan Development Association to revitalize the area dominated by electronic stores. Manhattan’s Bank chairman David Rockefeller, founder of the development association, and his brother, New York governor Nelson Rockefeller, pushed hard for the project and insisting it would benefit the entire city.
During the Second World War the Tower was closed to the public. The moat, which had been drained and filled in 1843, was used as allotments for vegetable growing and the Crown Jewels were removed from the Tower and taken to a place of safety, the location of which has never been disclosed. After the war, the Tower of London reopened its gates and resumed life as one of the world's major tourist attractions; today, over 2.5 million visitors a year come to discover its long and eventful history, its buildings, ceremonies and traditions.
African American History.INTRODUCTION African American History or Black American History, a history of black people in the United States from their arrival in the Americas in the 15th century until the present day.
In 1996, 33.9 million Americans, about one out of every eight people in the United States, were black. Although blacks from the West Indies and other areas have migrated to the United States in the 20th century, most African Americans were born in the United States, and this has been true since the
Martin Luther King, Jr.Martin Luther King, Jr., emerged as a leader of the American civil rights movement after organizing the famous 1955 bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama. Throughout his career he pressed for equal treatment and improved circumstances for blacks, organizing nonviolent protests and delivering powerful speeches on the necessity of eradicating institutional racial inequalities.
In 1963 King led a peaceful march between the Washington ...
Traffic on Gibraltar Bridge
The Gibraltar Bridge's traffic will flow over a roadbed made of spun glass. Designers say five lanes in either direction should be enough to handle the volume of vehicles.Fiberglass materials of this sort are rated at five times stronger than concrete, and any cracks or other damage could be isolated due to its web-like internal structure
The Creator's Words
"I feel this way about it. World trade means world peace and consequently the World Trade Center buildings in New York ... had a bigger purpose than just to provide room for tenants. The World Trade Center is a living symbol of man's dedication to world peace ... beyond the compelling need to make this a monument to world peace, the World Trade Center should, because of its importance, become a representation of man's belief in humanity, his need for individual dignity, his beliefs in the cooperation of men, and through cooperation, his ability to find greatness."
In the first decade of the nineteenth century, he turned the armies of France against almost every major European power, dominating continental Europe through a lengthy streak of military victories--epitomized through battles such as Austerlitz and Friedland--and through the formation of extensive alliance systems.
Peter the Great went down in Russian history for having rejected the Muscovite past. He enthusiastically made Russia closer to West. He was a giant among his contemporaries and a man of genius.
Peter intended to modernize his country and raise it to the first rank of European powers. He engaged skilled foreigners from Prussia, Holland, Great Britain to bring the latest western technology to Russia.
Peter had a passion for navigation. As a founder of the Russian navy, Peter first started to develop the Russia fleet in 1695. He wanted to capture from Turkey the fortress town of Azov and gain access to the Black Sea.
His greatest wish was also to win a seaport on the Baltic Sea and access to western trade. The Great Northern War against Sweden was declared in 1700 and lasted for more than twenty years.
In 1703 Peter captured the Swedish fortress of Nyenschanz on the River Neva, and on an island nearby he ordered to construct the Peter and Paul Fortress, the first building ...
Halloween is an annual celebration, but just what is it actually a celebration of? And how did this peculiar custom originate? Is it, as some claim, a kind of demon worship? Or is it just a harmless vestige of some ancient pagan ritual? The word itself, "Halloween," actually has its origins in the Catholic Church. It comes from a contracted corruption of All Hallows Eve. November 1, "All Hollows Day" (or "All Saints Day"), is a Catholic day of observance in honor of saints. But, in the 5th century BC, in Celtic Ireland, summer officially ended on October 31. The holiday was called Samhain (sow-en), the Celtic New year.
Whitehall, the broad avenue connecting Trafalgar Square to Parliament Square, is synonymous with the faceless, pi-striped bureaucracy charged with the day-to-day running of the country. Since the sixteenth century, nearly all the key governmental ministries and offices have migrated here, rehousing themselves on an ever-increasing scale, a process which reached its apogee with the grimly bland Ministry of Defence building, the largest office block in London when it was completed in 1957. The original Whitehall Palace was the London seat of the Archbishop of York, confiscated and greatly extend by Henry VIII after a fire at Westminster forced him to find alternative accommodation. Little survived the fire of 1698, caused by a Dutch laundrywoman, after which, partly due to the dank conditions in this part of town, the royal residence shifted to St James’s.
The palace of Westminster, better known as the Houses of Parliament, is London’s best-known monument. The “mother of all parliaments” ...
Bob Noyce typed himself a one page idea of what he wanted to do with his new company, and that was enough to convince San Francisco venture capitalist Art Rock to back Noyce's and Moore's new venture. Rock raised $2.5 million dollars in less than 2 days.
Andy Groves, Bob Noyce and Gordon Moore
Hollywood's first laws paint a telling portrait of the culture in those early days. Liquor was prohibited except as a medical prescription; bicycles and velocipedes were prohibited on sidewalks; and horses, cattle and mules were no to be driven through Hollywood streets in herds of more than 200. Herds of more than 2000 hogs or sheep were banned if unattended by a "competent man". Hardly the live-it-up tinsel town it would become in two short decades...
In 1904, a new trolley car track running from Los Angeles to Hollywood up Prospect Avenue was opened. The system was called "the Hollywood boulevard." It cut travel time to and from Los Angeles drastically. City hood for Hollywood only lasted six years. Hollywood’s population had grown too rapidly for the then existing water and municipal facilities. Annexation to the City of Los Angeles would assure the burgeoning community of adequate water, sewage and municipal services.
The election, held in 1910, was an overwhelming victory for ...
In addition to combining the spirits of many different African and Indian nations, pieces of Roman Catholic liturgy are incorporated to replace lost prayers or elements; in addition images of Catholic saints are used to represent various spirits or "misteh" ["mysteries"], and many saints themselves are honored in Haitian Vodou in their own right.
Cele 13 suburbii inconjuratoare sunt Camden, Hackney, Hammersmith and Fulham, Haringey, Islington, Kensington and Chelsea, Lambeth, Lewisham, Newham, Southwark, Tower Hamlets, Wandsworth si City of Westminster. Cele 19 suburbii din afara sunt Barking and Dagenham, Barnet, Bexley, Brent, Bromley, Croydon, Ealing, Enfield, Greenwich, Harrow, Havering, Hillingdon, Hounslow, Kingston upon Thames, Merton, Redbridge, Richmond upon Thames, Sutton, si Waltham Forest.
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