Child development

Trimis la data: 2010-07-04
Materia: Engleza
Nivel: Facultate
Pagini: 9
Nota: 10.00 / 10
Downloads: 0
Autor: Amalia Ionescu
Dimensiune: 26kb
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The family is one of the main socialising institutions of the society. Within the family, the child appropriates the social norms and values and it becomes capable of having relations with the other members of the society. The socialisation process within the family has many components: normative (through which there are transmitted to the child the main social norms and rules); cognitive (through which the child acquires habits and knowledge necessary to action as an adult); creative (through which there are formed the capacities of creative thought and of giving proper responses in new situations) and psychological (through which there is developed the affectivity necessary to the relation with the parents, with the future partner, with their own children and with other persons).

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Within the family there is established the basic or primary socialisation. The socialisation established within the family is essential for the children's social integration. The failures of the socialisation within the family have negative consequences at the communities and society level.

In comparison with the families from the traditional societies, the family social function has begun to be more and more taken over by other social institutions (school, cultural institutions, and mass media). Despite these transfers of social competencies, the family continues to remain one of the main institutions of socialisation.

The advantage of the socialisation within the family is that it is obtained in an environment of affectivity, which facilitates the transmission and the appropriation of the social values and norms. The child's development and its personality are the result of the complex interaction of several categories of factors: a) biological inheritance (genetic dowry); b) physical environment; c) culture; d) group experience and e) personal experience.

The child is born having certain pre-reconditioning resulting from the parents' genetic combinations and from the influences exercised on the child during pregnancy. The biological inheritance does not represent but the raw material (and just a part of this one), out of which the future personality is built up. The same raw material may be used in different ways, which gives birth to different personalities.

Belonging to the same species, humans have several biological common features. At the same time, each person is born with several biological features that give it a uniqueness character. Thus, the people's personalities shall present biologically conditioned similarities and features.

The role of the biological factors in determining the personality has been representing a dispute object for a very long time. According to certain conceptions, the role of the biological factors is considered as essential in the personality shaping. According to some other conceptions, the role of the biological determinations is ignored. The recent researches, from the '70's -'80's, have revealed (especially the studies on the twins) that heredity has a very important role in determining certain features of personality (such as intelligence) and not very important in determining other features (sociability, aptitudes, interests, impulses control etc.).

Up to the present, there could not be offered a rigorous scientific explanation for the determination relations between the physical features and the behavioural ones. Within many societies there are, at a folkloric level, similar convictions: fat persons are kind persons, red-haired people are bad, women with thin lips are shrew, etc. In some situations, there was revealed a statistical correlation between certain physical features and certain behavioural features. However, from that there cannot result a causal relation between the two categories of features.

The explanation for such statistical correlation may be placed rather at the level of the relation between the social expectations and the conduct. If within a society there functions as social expectation the fact that fat persons are kind, then there will exist a social pressure so that the persons having this same physical feature conform to the expectations.
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